COUNCIL (1215)

 Pope Innocent III Dreams of St. Francis Supporting the Falling Lateran Basilica

Concilium Lateranense IV a. 1215 - Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Decreta, J. Alberigo, J.A. Dossetti, P.P. Joannou, C. Leonardi, P. Prodi, H. Jedin, (1973), pp. 230 – 271 From H. J. Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils: Text, Translation and Commentary, (St. Louis: B. Herder, 1937). pp. 236-296. [taken in part from the Internet Medieval Source Book]

1. Confession of Faith

12. On general chapters of monks

2. On the error of abbot Joachim

13. A prohibition against new religious orders

3. On Heretics

14. Clerical incontinence

4. On rebaptism by Greeks of those baptized by Latins

15. Clerical gluttony and drunkeness

5. The dignity of the patriarchal sees

16. Decorum in the dress and behaviour of clerics

6. On yearly provincial councils

17. Dissolute prelates

7. The correction of offences and the reform of morals

18. Clerics to dissociate from shedding-blood

8. On inquests

19. That profane objects may not be stored in churches

9. On different rites within the same faith

20. Chrism and the Eucharist to be kept under lock and key

10. On appointing preachers

21. On yearly confession to one’s own priest, yearly communion, the confessional seal

11. On schoolmasters for the poor

22. Physicians of the body to advise patients to call physicians of the soul






CANON 1. Confession of Faith






Text: We firmly believe and openly confess that there is only one true God, eternal and immense, omnipotent, unchangeable, incomprehensible, and ineffable, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; three Persons indeed but one essence, substance, or nature absolutely simple; the Father (proceeding) from no one, but the Son from the Father only, and the Holy Ghost equally from both, always without beginning and end. The Father begetting, the Son begotten, and the Holy Ghost proceeding; consubstantial and coequal, co-omnipotent and coeternal, the one principle of the universe, Creator of all things invisible and visible, spiritual and corporeal, who from the beginning of time and by His omnipotent power made from nothing creatures both spiritual and corporeal, angelic, namely, and mundane, and then human, as it were, common, composed of spirit and body. The devil and the other demons were indeed created by God good by nature but they became bad through themselves; man, however, sinned at the suggestion of the devil. This Holy Trinity in its common essense undivided and in personal properties divided, through Moses, the holy prophets, and other servants gave to the human race at the most opportune intervals of time the doctrine of salvation.

Firmiter credimus et simpliciter confitemur quod unus solus est verus deus aeternus et immensus omnipotens incommutabilis incomprehensibilis et ineffabilis pater et filius et spiritus sanctus tres quidem personae sed una essentia substantia seu natura simplex omnino.    Pater a nullo filius autem a solo patre ac spiritus sanctus ab utroque pariter absque initio semper et fine.   Pater generans filius nascens et spiritus sanctus procedens consubstantiales et coaequales coomnipotentes et coaeterni unum universorum principium creator omnium invisibilium et visibilium spiritualium et corporalium qui sua omnipotenti virtute simul ab initio temporis utramque de nihilo condidit creaturam spiritualem et corporalem angelicam videlicet et mundanam ac deinde humanam quasi communem ex spiritu et corpore constitutam.  Diabolus enim et daemones alii a deo quidem natura creati sunt boni sed ipsi per se facti sunt mali.   Homo vero diaboli suggestione peccavit.   Haec sancta trinitas secundum communem essentiam individua et secundum personales proprietates discreta per Moysen et sanctos prophetas alios que famulos suos iuxta ordinatissimam dispositionem temporum doctrinam humano generi tribuit salutarem.

And finally, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God made flesh by the entire Trinity, conceived with the co-operation of the Holy Ghost of Mary ever Virgin, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one Person in two natures, pointed out more clearly the way of life. Who according to His divinity is immortal and impassable, according to His humanity was made passable and mortal, suffered on the cross for the salvation of the human race, and being dead descended into hell, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven. But He descended in soul, arose in flesh, and ascended equally in both; He will come at the end of the world to judge the living and the dead and will render to the reprobate and to the elect according to their works. Who all shall rise with their own bodies which they now have that they may receive according to their merits, whether good or bad, the latter eternal punishment with the devil, the former eternal glory with Christ.

Et tandem unigenitus dei filius Iesus Christus a tota trinitate communiter incarnatus ex Maria semper virgine spiritus sancti cooperatione conceptus verus homo factus ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus una in duabus naturis persona viam vitae manifestius demonstravit.   Qui cum secundum divinitatem sit immortalis et impassibilis idem ipse secundum humanitatem factus est passibilis et mortalis quin etiam pro salute humani generis in ligno crucis passus et mortuus descendit ad inferos resurrexit a mortuis et ascendit in coelum.   Sed descendit in anima resurrexit in carne ascendit que pariter in utroque venturus in fine saeculi iudicare vivos et mortuos et redditurus singulis secundum opera sua tam reprobis quam electis.   Qui omnes cum suis propriis corporibus resurgent quae nunc gestant ut recipiant secundum merita sua sive bona fuerint sive mala illi cum diabolo poenam perpetuam et isti cum Christo gloriam sempiternam.

There is one Universal Church of the faithful, outside of which there is absolutely no salvation. In which there is the same priest and sacrifice, Jesus Christ, whose body and blood are truly contained in the sacrament of the altar under the forms of bread and wine; the bread being changed (transsubstantiatio) by divine power into the body, and the wine into the blood, so that to realize the mystery of unity we may receive of Him what He has received of us. And this sacrament no one can effect except the priest who has been duly ordained in accordance with the keys of the Church, which Jesus Christ Himself gave to the Apostles and their successors.

Una vero est fidelium universalis ecclesia extra quam nullus omnino salvatur in qua idem ipse sacerdos et sacrificium Iesus Christus cuius corpus et sanguis in sacramento altaris sub speciebus panis et vini veraciter continentur transsubstantiatis pane in corpus et vino in sanguinem potestate divina ut ad perficiendum mysterium unitatis accipiamus ipsi de suo quod accepit ipse de nostro.   Et hoc utique sacramentum nemo potest conficere nisi sacerdos qui fuerit rite ordinatus secundum claves ecclesiae quas ipse concessit apostolis et eorum successoribus Iesus Christus.

But the sacrament of baptism, which by the invocation of each Person of the Trinity, namely of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, is effected in water, duly conferred on children and adults in the form prescribed by the Church by anyone whatsoever, leads to salvation. And should anyone after the reception of baptism have fallen into sin, by true repentance he can always be restored. Not only virgins and those practicing chastity, but also those united in marriage, through the right faith and through works pleasing to God, can merit eternal salvation.

Sacramentum vero baptismi quod ad invocationem individuae trinitatis videlicet patris et filii et spiritus sancti consecratur in aqua tam parvulis quam adultis in forma ecclesiae a quocunque rite collatum proficit ad salutem.   Et si post susceptionem baptismi quisquam prolapsus fuerit in peccatum per veram poenitentiam semper potest reparari.   Non solum autem virgines et continentes verum etiam coniugati per fidem rectam et operationem bonam placentes deo ad aeternam merentur beatitudinem pervenire.





CANON 2. On the Error of Abbot Joachim






Text: We condemn, therefore, and reprobate the book or tract which Abbot Joachim published against Master Peter Lombard concerning the unity or essense of the Trinity, calling him heretical and insane because he said in his Sentences that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are some supreme entity in which there is no begetting, no begotten, and no proceeding. Whence he asserts that he (Peter Lombard) attributed to God not so much a trinity as a quaternity, namely, three Persons and that common essense as a fourth, clearly protesting that there is no entity that is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, neither is it essense or substance or nature, though he concedes that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are one essense, one substance, and one nature. But he says that such a unity is not a true and proper (propriam) unity, but rather a collective one or one by way of similitude, as many men are called one people and many faithful one Church, according to the words: “The multitude of believers had but one heart and one soul” (Acts 4: 32); and, “He who is joined to the Lord, is one spirit” (I Cor. 6: I7); similarly, “He that planteth and he that watereth, are one” (I Cor- 3: 8); and, “So we being many, are one body in Christ” (Rom. 12: 5). Again in the Book of Kings (Ruth): “My people and thy people are one” (Ruth I: i6). To strengthen this teaching he cites that most important word which Christ spoke concerning the faithful in the Gospel: will, Father, that they may be one, as we also are one, that they may be made perfect in one” (John I7: 22 f.). For the faithful of Christ, he says, are not one in the sense that they are some one thing that is common to all, but in the sense that they constitute one Church by reason of the unity of the Catholic faith and one kingdom by reason of the union of indissoluble charity, as we read in the canonical Epistle of St. John: “There are three who give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one” (I John 5: 7). And immediately it is added: “And there are three who give testimony on earth, the spirit, the water, and the blood; and these three are one” (I John 5: 8), as it is found in some codices.

Damnamus ergo et reprobamus libellum sive tractatum quem abbas Ioachim edidit contra magistrum Petrum Lombardum de unitate seu essentia trinitatis appellans ipsum haereticum et insanum pro eo quod in suis dixit sententiis quoniam quaedam summa res est pater et filius et spiritus sanctus et illa non est generans neque genita nec procedens unde asserit quod ille non tam trinitatem quam quaternitatem adstruebat in deo videlicet tres personas et illam communem essentiam quasi quartam manifeste protestans quod nulla res est quae sit pater et filius et spiritus sanctus nec est essentia nec substantia nec natura quamvis concedat quod pater et filius et spiritus sanctus sunt una essentia una substantia una que natura.   Verum unitatem huiusmodi non veram et propriam sed quasi collectivam et similitudinariam esse fatetur quemadmodum dicuntur multi homines unus populus et multi fideles una ecclesia iuxta illud multitudinis credentium erat cor unum et anima una et qui adhaeret deo unus spiritus est cum illo.   Item qui plantat et qui rigat unus sunt et omnes unum corpus sumus in Christo.   Rursus in libro regum populus meus et populus tuus unum sunt.   Ad hanc autem sententiam adstruendam illud potissimum verbum inducit quod Christus de fidelibus inquit in evangelio volo pater ut sint unum in nobis sicut et nos unus sumus ut sint consummati in unum. Non enim ut ait fideles Christi sunt unum id est una quaedam res quae communis sit omnibus hic modo sunt unum id est una ecclesia propter catholicae fidei unitatem et tandem unum regnum propter unionem indissolubilis caritatis.   Quemadmodum in canonica Ioannis epistola legitur quia tres sunt qui testimonium dant in coelo pater et verbum et spiritus sanctus et hi tres unum sunt.   Statim que subiungit et tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra spiritus aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt sicut in codicibus quibusdam invenitur.

But we, with the approval of the holy and general council, believe and confess with Peter (Lombard) that there is one supreme entity, incomprehensible and ineffable, which is truly Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, together (simul) three persons and each one of them singly. And thus in God there is only trinity, not quaternity, because each of the three persons is that entity, namely, substance, essense, or divine nature, which alone is the principle of the universe and besides which there is no other. And that entity is not the one begetting or the one begotten or the one proceeding, but it is the Father who begets, the Son who is begotten, and the Holy Ghost proceeds, in order that there may be distinctions in the Persons who unity in the nature. Though, therefore, the Father is one (being), and the Son is another, and the Holy Ghost is another, yet they are not different (non tamen aliud); but that which is the Father that is the Son and the Holy Ghost, absolutely the same, since according to the Orthodox and Catholic faith they are believed to be consubstantial. For the Father begetting the Son from eternity imparted to Him His own substance, as He Himself testifies: “That which my father hath given me, is greater than all” (John 10: 29). And it cannot- be said that He gave to Him a part of His substance and retained a part for Himself, since the substance of the Father is indivisible, that is, absolutely simple. But neither can it be said that Father in begetting transferred His substance to the Son, as if gave it to the Son without retaining it for Himself, otherwise He would cease to be a substance. It is evident, therefore, that the Son in being begotten received without any diminution the substance of the Father and thus the Father and Son as well as the Holy Ghost proceeding from both are the same entity. When therefore the Truth prays to the Father for the faithful, saying: “I will that they be one in us, even as we are one” (John 7: 22), this term “one” is understood first for the faithful, as implying a union of charity in grace, then for the divine persons, as implying a unity of identity in nature; as the Truth says in another place: “Be you perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect” (Matt. 5: 48); as if He would say more clearly: be perfect by the perfection of grace as your heavenly Father is perfect by the perfection of nature, namely, each in his own way, because between the Creator and the creature there cannot be a likeness so great that the unlikeness is not greater. If therefore anyone presume to defend or approve the teaching of the aforesaid Joachim on this point, let him be repressed by all as a heretic.

Nos autem sacro et universali concilio approbante credimus et confitemur cum Petro quod una quaedam summa res est incomprehensibilis quidem et ineffabilis quae veraciter est pater et filius et spiritus sanctus tres simul personae ac sigillatim quaelibet earundem et ideo in deo trinitas est solummodo non quaternitas quia quaelibet trium personarum est illa res videlicet substantia essentia sive natura divina quae sola est universorum principium praeter quod aliud inveniri non potest et illa res non est generans neque genita nec procedens sed est pater qui generat filius qui gignitur et spiritus sanctus qui procedit ut distinctiones sint in personis et unitas in natura.   Licet igitur alius sit pater alius filius alius spiritus sanctus non tamen aliud sed id quod est pater est filius et spiritus sanctus idem omnino ut secundum orthodoxam et catholicam fidem consubstantiales esse credantur.   Pater enim ab aeterno filium generando suam substantiam ei dedit iuxta quod ipse testatur pater quod dedit mihi maius est omnibus ac dici non potest quod partem suae substantiae illi dederit et partem retinuerit ipse sibi cum substantia patris indivisibilis sit utpote simplex omnino.   Sed nec dici potest quod pater in filium transtulerit suam substantiam generando quasi sic dederit eam filio quod non retinuerit ipsam sibi alio desiisset esse substantia.   Patet ergo quod sine ulla diminutione filius nascendo substantiam patris accepit et ita pater et filius habent eandem substantiam et sic eadem res est pater et filius necnon et spiritus sanctus ab utroque procedens.   Cum ergo veritas pro fidelibus suis ad patrem orat volo inquiens ut ipsi sint unum in nobis sicut et nos unum sumus hoc nomen unum pro fidelibus quidem accipitur ut intelligatur unio caritatis in gratia pro personis vero divinis ut attendatur identitatis in natura unitas quemadmodum veritas alibi ait estote perfecti sicut et pater vester coelestis perfectus est ac si diceret manifestius estote perfecti perfectione gratiae sicut pater vester coelestis perfectus est perfectione naturae utraque videlicet suo modo quia inter creatorem et creaturam non potest tanta similitudo notari quin inter eos maior sit dissimilitudo notanda.   Si quis igitur sententiam sive doctrinam praefati Ioachim in hac parte defendere vel approbare praesumpserit tamquam haereticus ab omnibus confutetur.

In this, however, we do not wish to derogate in anything from the monastery of Flora, which Joachim himself founded, since therein is both the regular life and salutary observance, but chiefly because the same Joachim ordered that his writings be submitted to us to be approved or corrected by the judgment of the Apostolic See, dictating a letter which he subscribed with his own hand, in which he firmly confesses that he holds that faith which the Roman Church holds, which by the will of God is the mother and mistress of all the faithful. We also reprobate and condemn the perverse teaching of he impious Amaury (Almaricus, Amalricus) de Bene, whose mind the father of lies has so darkened that his teaching is to be regarded not so much heretical as insane.

In nullo tamen per hoc Florensi monasterio cuius ipse Ioachim exstitit institutor volumus derogari quoniam ibi et regularis institutio est et observantia salutaris maxime cum idem Ioachim omnia scripta sua nobis assignari mandaverit apostolicae sedis iudicio approbanda seu etiam corrigenda dictans epistolam cui propria manu subscripsit in qua firmiter confitetur se illam fidem tenere quam Romana tenet ecclesia quae cunctorum fidelium disponente domino mater est et magistra.   Reprobamus etiam et damnamus perversissimum dogma impii Amalrici cuius mentem sic pater mendacii excaecavit ut eius doctrina non tam haeretica censenda sit quam insana.





CANON 3. On Heretics






Text. We excommunicate and anathematize every heresy that raises against the holy, orthodox and Catholic faith which we have above explained; condemning all heretics under whatever names they may be known, for while they have different faces they are nevertheless bound to each other by their tails, since in all of them vanity is a common element. Those condemned, being handed over to the secular rulers of their bailiffs, let them be abandoned, to be punished with due justice, clerics being first degraded from their orders. As to the property of the condemned, if they are laymen, let it be confiscated; if clerics, let it be applied to the churches from which they received revenues. But those who are only suspected, due consideration being given to the nature of the suspicion and the character of the person, unless they prove their innocence by a proper defense, let them be anathematized and avoided by all 1-intil they have made suitable satisfaction; but if they have been under excommunication for one year, then let them be condemned as heretics. Secular authorities, whatever office they may hold, shall be admonished and induced and if necessary compelled by ecclesiastical censure, that as they wish to be esteemed and numbered among the faithful, so for the defense of the faith they ought publicly to take an oath that they will strive in good faith and to the best of their ability to exterminate in the territories subject to their jurisdiction all heretics pointed out by the Church; so that whenever anyone shall have assumed authority, whether spiritual or temporal, let him be bound to confirm this decree by oath. But if a temporal ruler, after having been requested and admonished by the Church, should neglect to cleanse his territory of this heretical foulness, let him be excommunicated by the metropolitan and the other bishops of the province. If he refuses to make satisfaction within a year, let the matter be made known to the supreme pontiff, that he may declare the ruler’s vassals absolved from their allegiance and may offer the territory to be ruled lay Catholics, who on the extermination of the heretics may possess it without hindrance and preserve it in the purity of faith; the right, however, of the chief ruler is to be respected as long as he offers no obstacle in this matter and permits freedom of action. The same law is to be observed in regard to those who have no chief rulers (that is, are independent). Catholics who have girded themselves with the cross for the extermination of the heretics, shall enjoy the indulgences and privileges granted to those who go in defense of the Holy Land.

Excommunicamus et anathemizamus omnem haeresim extollentem se adversus hanc sanctam orthodoxam catholicam fidem quam superius exposuimus condemnantes universos haereticos quibuscumque nominibus censeantur facies quidem habentes diversas sed caudas adinvicem colligatas quia de vanitate conveniunt in id ipsum.   Damnati vero saecularibus potestatibus praesentibus aut eorum balivis relinquantur animadversione debita puniendi clericis prius a suis ordinibus degradatis ita quod bona huiusmodi damnatorum si laici fuerint confiscentur si vero clerici applicentur ecclesiis a quibus stipendia perceperunt.   Qui autem inventi fuerint sola suspicione notabiles nisi iuxta considerationes suspicionis qualitatem que personae propriam innocentiam congrua purgatione monstraverint anathematis gladio feriantur et usque ad satisfactionem condignam ab omnibus evitentur ita quod si per annum in excommunicatione perstiterint extunc velut haeretici condemnentur.   Moneantur autem et inducantur et si necesse fuerit per censuram ecclesiasticam compellantur saeculares potestates quibuscumque fungantur officiis ut sicut reputari cupiunt et haberi fideles ita pro defensione fidei praestent publice iuramentum quod de terris suae iurisdictioni subiectis universos haereticos ab ecclesia denotatos bona fide pro viribus exterminare studebunt ita quod amodo quandocumque quis fuerit in potestatem sive spiritualem sive temporalem assumptus hoc teneatur capitulum iuramento firmare.   Si vero dominus temporalis requisitus et monitus ab ecclesia terram suam purgare neglexerit ab hac haeretica foeditate per metropolitanum et ceteros comprovinciales episcopos excommunicationis vinculo innodetur.   Et si satisfacere contempserit infra annum significetur hoc summo pontifici ut ex ipse vassallos ab eius fidelitate denunciet absolutos et terram exponat catholicis occupandam qui eam exterminatis haereticis sine ulla contradictione possideant et in fidei puritate conservent salvo iure domini principalis dummodo super hoc ipse nullum praestet obstaculum nec aliquod impedimentum opponat.   Eadem nihilominus lege servata circa eos qui non habent dominos principales.   Catholici vero qui crucis assumpto charactere ad haereticorum exterminium se accinxerint illa gaudeant indulgentia illo que sancto privilegio sint muniti quod accedentibus in terrae sanctae subsidium conceditur.

We decree that those who give credence to the teachings of the heretics, as well as those who receive, defend, and patronize them, are excommunicated; and we firmly declare that after any one of them has been branded with excommunication, if he has deliberately failed to make satisfaction within a year, let him incur ipso jure the stigma of infamy and let him not be admitted to public offices or deliberations, and let him not take part in the election of others to such offices or use his right to give testimony in a court of law. Let him also be intestable, that he may not have the free exercise of making a will, and let him be deprived of the right of inheritance. Let no one be urged to give an account to him in any matter, but let him be urged to give an account to others. If perchance he be a judge, let his decisions have no force, nor let any cause be brought to his attention. If he be an advocate, let his assistance by no means be sought. If a notary, let the instruments drawn up by him be considered worthless, for, the author being condemned, let them enjoy a similar fate. In all similar cases we command that the same be observed. If, however, he be a cleric, let him be deposed from every office and benefice, that the greater the fault the graver may be the punishment inflicted.

Credentes vero praeterea receptores defensores et fautores haereticorum excommunicationi decernimus subiacere firmiter statuentes ut postquam quis talium fuerit excommunicatione notatus si satisfacere contempserit infra annum ex ipso iure sit factus infamis nec ad publica officia seu consilia nec ad eligendos aliquos ad huiusmodi nec ad testimonium admittatur.   Sit etiam intestabilis ut nec testandi liberam habeat facultatem nec ad hereditatis successionem accedat.   Nullus praeterea ipsi super quocumque negocio sed ipse alii respondere cogatur.   Quod si forte iudex exstiterit eius sententia nullam obtineat firmitatem nec causae aliquae ad eius audientiam perferantur.   Si fuerit advocatus eius patrocinium nullatenus admittatur.   Si tabellio eius instrumenta confecta per ipsum nullius penitus sint momenti sed cum auctore damnato damnentur.   Et in similibus idem praecipimus observari.   Si vero clericus fuerit ab omni officio et beneficio deponatur ut in quo maior est culpa gravior exerceatur vindicta.

If any refuse to avoid such after they have been ostracized by the Church, let them be excommunicated till they have made suitable satisfaction. Clerics shall not give the sacraments of the Church to such pestilential people, nor shall they presume to give them Christian burial, or to receive their alms or offerings; otherwise they shall be deprived of their office, to which they may not be restored without a special indult of the Apostolic See. Similarly, all regulars, on whom also this punishment may be imposed, let their privileges be nullified in that diocese in which they have presumed to perpetrate such excesses.

Si qui autem tales postquam ab ecclesia denotati fuerint evitare contempserint excommunicationis sententia usque ad satisfactionem idoneam percellantur.   Sane clerici non exhibeant huiusmodi pestilentibus ecclesiastica sacramenta nec eos christianae praesumant sepulturae tradere nec eleemosynas aut oblationes eorum accipiant. Alioquin suo priventur officio ad quod numquam restituantur absque indulto sedis apostolicae speciali.   Similiter quilibet regulares quibus hoc etiam infligatur ut eorum privilegia illa dioecesi non serventur in qua tales excessus praesumpserint perpetrare

But since some, under “the appearance of godliness, but denying the power thereof,” as the Apostle says (II Tim. 3: 5), arrogate to themselves the authority to preach, as the same Apostle says: “How shall they preach unless they be sent?” (Rom. 10:15), all those prohibited or not sent, who, without the authority of the Apostolic See or of the Catholic bishop of the locality, shall presume to usurp the office of preaching either publicly or privately, shall be excommunicated and unless they amend, and the sooner the better, they shall be visited with a further suitable penalty. We add, moreover, that every archbishop or bishop should himself or through his archdeacon or some other suitable persons, twice or at least once a year make the rounds of his diocese in which report has it that heretics dwell, and there compel three or more men of good character or, if it should be deemed advisable, the entire neighborhood, to swear that if anyone know of the presence there of heretics or others holding secret assemblies, or differing from the common way of the faithful in faith and morals, they will make them known to the bishop. The latter shall then call together before him those accused, who, if they do not purge themselves of the matter of which they are accused, or if after the rejection of their error they lapse into their former wickedness, shall be canonically punished. But if any of them by damnable obstinacy should disapprove of the oath and should perchance be unwilling to swear, from this very fact let them be regarded as heretics.

Quia vero nonnulli sub specie pietatis virtutem eius iuxta quod ait apostolus abnegantes auctoritatem sibi vendicant praedicandi cum idem apostolus dicat quomodo praedicabunt nisi mittantur omnes qui prohibiti vel non missi praeter auctoritatem ab apostolica sede vel catholico episcopo loci susceptam publice vel privatim praedicationis officium usurpare praesumpserint excommunicationis vinculo innodentur et nisi quantocius resipuerint alia competenti poena plectantur.   Adicimus insuper ut quilibet archiepiscopus vel episcopus per se aut per archidiaconum suum vel idoneas personas honestas bis aut saltem semel in anno propriam parochiam in qua fama fuerit haereticos habitare circumeat et ibi tres vel plures boni testimonii viros vel etiam si expedire videbitur totam viciniam iurare compellat.   Quod si quis ibidem haereticos sciverit vel aliquos occulta conventicula celebrantes seu a communi conversatione fidelium vita et moribus dissidentes eos episcopo studeat indicare.   Ipse autem episcopus ad praesentiam suam convocet accusatos qui nisi se ab obiecto reatu purgaverint vel si post purgationem exhibitam in pristinam fuerint relapsi perfidiam canonice puniantur.   Si qui vero ex eis iuramenti religionem obstinatione damnabili respuentes iurare forte noluerint ex hoc ipso tamquam haeretici reputentur.

We wish, therefore, and in virtue of obedience strictly command, that to carry out these instructions effectively the bishops exercise throughout their dioceses a scrupulous vigilance if they wish to escape canonical punishment. If from sufficient evidence it is apparent that a bishop is negligent or remiss in cleansing his diocese of the ferment of heretical wickedness, let him be deposed from the episcopal office and let another, who will and can confound heretical depravity, be substituted.

Volumus igitur et mandamus et in virtute obedientiae districte praecipimus ut ad haec efficaciter exequenda episcopi per dioeceses suas diligenter invigilent si canonicam effugere voluerint ultionem.   Si quis enim episcopus super expurgando de sua dioecesi haereticae pravitatis fermento negligens fuerit vel remissus cum id certis indiciis apparuerit et ab episcopali officio deponatur et in loco ipsius alter substituatur idoneus qui velit et possit haereticam confundere pravitatem.





CANON 4. Those baptized by the Latins must not be rebaptized by the Greeks.






Though we wish to favor and honor the Greeks who in our days are returning to the obedience of the Apostolic See by permitting them to retain their customs and rites in so far as the interests of God allow us, in those things, however, that are a danger to souls and derogatory to ecclesiastical propriety, we neither wish nor ought to submit to them. After the Church of the Greeks with some of her accomplices and supporters had severed herself from the obedience of the Apostolic See, to such an extent did the Greeks begin hating the Latins that among other things which they impiously committed derogatory to the Latins was this, that when Latin priests had celebrated upon their altars, they would not offer the sacrifice upon those altars till the altars had first been washed, as if by this they had been defiled. Also, those baptized by the Latins the Greeks rashly presume to rebaptize, and even till now, as we understand, there are some who do not hesitate to do this. Desirous, therefore, of removing such scandal from the Church of God, and advised by the holy council, we strictly command that they do not presume to do such things in the future, but conform themselves as obedient children to the Holy Roman Church, their mother, that there may be “one fold and one shepherd.” If anyone shall presume to act contrary to this, let him be excommunicated and deposed from every office and ecclesiastical benefice.

Licet Graecos in diebus nostris ad obedientiam sedis apostolicae revertentes fovere et honorare velimus mores ac ritus eorum quantum cum domino possumus sustinendo in his tamen illis deferre nec volumus nec debemus quae periculum generant animarum et ecclesiasticae derogant honestati. Postquam enim Graecorum ecclesia cum quibusdam complicibus ac fautoribus suis ab obedientia sedis apostolicae se subtraxit in tantum Graeci coeperunt abominari Latinos quod inter alia quae in derogationem eorum impie committebant si quando sacerdotes Latini super eorum celebrassent altaria non prius ipsi sacrificare volebant in illis quam ea tamquam per hoc inquinata lavissent.   Baptizatos etiam a Latinis et ipsi Graeci rebaptizare ausu temerario praesumebant et adhuc sicut accepimus quidam agere hoc non verentur.   Volentes ergo tantum ab ecclesia dei scandalum amovere sacro suadente concilio districte praecipimus ut talia de caetero non praesumant conformantes se tamquam obedientiae filii sacrosanctae Romanae ecclesiae matri suae ut sit unum ovile et unus pastor.   Si quis autem quid tale praesumpserit excommunicationis mucrone percussus ab omni officio et beneficio ecclesiastico deponatur.





CANON 5. The council approves the existing order of the patriarchal sees and affirm, three of their privileges: their bishops may confer the pallium and may have the cross borne before them, and appeals may be taken to them.






Renewing the ancient privileges of the patriarchal sees, we decree with the approval of the holy and ecumenical council, that after the Roman Church, which by the will of God holds over all others pre-eminence of ordinary power as the mother and mistress of all the faithful, that of Constantinople shall hold first place, that of Alexandria second, that of Antioch third, and that of Jerusalem fourth, the dignity proper to each to be observed; so that after their bishops have received from the Roman pontiff the pallium, which is the distinguishing mark of the plenitude of the pontifical office, and have taken the oath of fidelity and obedience to him, they may also lawfully bestow the pallium upon their suffragans, receiving from them the canonical profession of faith for themselves, and for the Roman Church the pledge of obedience. They may have the standard of the cross borne before them everywhere, except in the city of Rome and wherever the supreme pontiff or his legate wearing the insignia of Apostolic dignity is present. In all provinces subject to their jurisdiction appeals may be taken to them when necessary, saving the appeals directed to the Apostolic See, which must be humbly respected.

Antiqua patriarchalium sedium privilegia renovantes sacra universali synodo approbante sancimus ut post Romanam ecclesiam quae disponente domino super omnes alias ordinariae potestatis obtinet principatum utpote mater universorum Christi fidelium et magistra constantinopolitana primum Alexandrina secundum Antiochena tertium hierosolymitana quartum locum obtineant servata cuilibet propria dignitate ita quod postquam eorum antistites a Romano pontifice receperint pallium quod est plenitudinis officii pontificalis insigne praestito sibi fidelitatis et obedientiae iuramento licenter et ipsi suis suffraganeis pallium largiantur recipientes pro se professionem canonicam et pro Romana ecclesia sponsionem obedientiae ab eisdem.   Dominicae vero crucis vexillum ante se faciant ubique deferri nisi in urbe Romana et ubicumque summus pontifex praesens exstiterit vel eius legatus utens insigniis apostolicae dignitatis.   In omnibus autem provinciis eorum iurisdictioni subiectis ad eos cum necesse fuerit provocetur salvis appellationibus ad sedem apostolicam interpositis quibus est ab omnibus humiliter deferendum.





CANON 6. Provincial synod, for the correction of abuses and the enforcement of canonical enactments must be held annually. To ensure this, reliable persons are to be appointed who will investigate such things as need correction.






In accordance with the ancient provisions of the holy Fathers, the metropolitans must not neglect to hold with their suffragans the annual provincial synods. In these they should be actuated with a genuine fear of God in correcting abuses and reforming morals, especially the morals of the clergy, familiarizing themselves anew with the canonical rules, particularly those that are enacted in this general council, that they may enforce their observance by imposing due punishment on transgressors. That this may be done more effectively, let them appoint in each and every diocese prudent and upright persons, who throughout the entire year shall informally and without any jurisdiction diligently investigate such things as need correction or reform and faithfully present them to the metropolitan, suffragans, and others in the following synod, so that they may give prudent consideration to these and other matters as circumstances demand; and in reference to those things that they decree, let them enforce observance, publishing the decisions in the episcopal synods to be held annually in each diocese. Whoever shall neglect to comply with this salutary statute, let him be suspended from his office and benefits till it shall please his superior to restore him.

Sicut olim a sanctis patribus noscitur institutum metropolitani singulis annis cum suis suffraganeis provincialia non omittant concilia celebrare in quibus de corrigendis excessibus et moribus reformandis praesertim in clero diligentem habeant cum dei timore tractatum canonicas regulas et maxime quae statuta sunt in hoc generali concilio relegentes ut eas faciant observari debitam poenam transgressoribus infligendo.   Ut autem id valeat efficacius adimpleri per singulas dioeceses statuant idoneas personas providas videlicet et honestas quae per totum annum simpliciter et de plano absque ulla iurisdictione sollicite investigent quae correctione vel reformatione sint digna et ea fideliter perferant ad metropolitanum et suffraganeos et alios in concilio subsequenti ut super his et aliis prout utilitati et honestati congruerit provida deliberatione procedant.   Et quae statuerint faciant observari publicantes ea in episcopalibus synodis annuatim per singulas dioeceses celebrandis. Quisquis autem hoc salutare statutum neglexerit adimplere a suis beneficiis et executione officii suspendatur donec per superioris arbitrium eius relaxetur.





CANON 7. No custom or appeal shall hinder prelates from correcting abuses and reforming the morals of their subjects. If the chapter neglects to correct the excesses of the canons, it shall devolve upon the bishop to do so. Prelates shall not use this statute as means of pecuniary gain.






Text. By an irrefragable decree we ordain that prelates make a prudent and earnest effort to correct the excesses and reform the morals of their subjects, especially of the clergy, lest their blood be demanded at their hands. But that they may perform unhindered the duty of correction and reform, we decree that no custom or apeal shall stand in the way of their efforts, unless they shall have exceeded the form to be observed in such cases. The abuses, however, of the canons of the cathedral church, the correction of which has by custom belonged to the chapter, shall, in those churches in which such a custom has hitherto prevailed, by the advice or command of the bishop be corrected within a reasonable time specified by the bishop. Otherwise the bishop, having in mind the interests of God, opposition notwithstanding, shall not delay to correct them means of ecclesiastical censure according as the cura animarum demands. Nor shall he neglect to correct the excesses also of the other clerics (those assisting the canons) according as the cura animarum requires, due order, however, being observed in all things. If the canons without a manifest and reasonable cause, chiefly through contempt for the bishop, discontinue divine services, the bishop may, if he wishes, celebrate in the cathedral church, and on his complaint the metropolitan, as delegated by us in this matter, shall so punish them with ecclesiastical censure that for fear of a repetition of the punishment they will not presume to do such things in the future. Let the prelates of the churches, therefore, be diligently on their guard that they do not convert this salutary decree into a means of personal profit or other objectionable conduct, but let them enforce it earnestly and faithfully if they wish to escape canonical punishment, for in this matter the Apostolic See, on the authority of the Lord, will be most vigilant.

Irrefragabili constitutione sancimus ut ecclesiarum praelati ad corrigendum subditorum excessus maxime clericorum et reformandum mores prudenter et diligenter intendant ne sanguis eorum de suis manibus requiratur.   Ut autem correctionis et reformationis officium libere valeant exercere decernimus ut executionem ipsarum nulla consuetudo vel appellatio valeat impedire nisi formam excesserint in talibus observandam.   Excessus tamen canonicorum ecclesiae cathedralis qui consueverunt corrigi per capitulum per ipsum in illis ecclesiis quae talem hactenus consuetudinem habuerunt ad commonitionem et iussionem episcopi corrigantur infra terminum competentem ab episcopo praefigendum.   Alioquin ex episcopus deum habens prae oculis omni contradictione cessante ipsos prout animarum cura exegerit per censuram ecclesiasticam corrigere non postponat sed et alios eorum excessus corrigere non omittat prout animarum causa requirit debito tamen ordine in omnibus observato.   Caeterum si canonici absque manifesta et rationabili causa maxime in contemptum episcopi cessaverint a divinis episcopus nihilominus si voluerit celebret in ecclesia cathedrali et metropolitanus ad querelam ipsius tamquam super hoc delegatus a nobis taliter eos per censuram ecclesiasticam cognita veritate castiget quod poenae metu talia de cetero non praesumant.   Provideant itaque diligenter ecclesiarum praelati ut hoc salutare statutum ad quaestum pecuniae vel gravamen aliud non convertant sed illud studiose ac fideliter exequantur si canonicam voluerint effugere ultionem quoniam super his apostolica sedes auctore domino attentissime vigilabit.





CANON 8. Reports of serious irregularities by prelates and inferior clerics must be investigated bv the superior. The accused must be given occasion to defend himself and, if found guilty, must be punished accordingly.






Text:. How and when a prelate ought to proceed in the inquiry and punishment of the excesses of subjects (that is, of clerics), is clearly deduced from the authority of the New and Old Testaments, from which the canonical decrees were afterward drawn, as we have long since clearly pointed out and now with the approval of the holy council confirm. For we read in the Gospel that the steward who was accused to his master of wasting his goods, heard him say: “How is it that I hear this of thee? Give an account of thy stewardship, for now thou canst be steward no longer” (Luke i6: 2). And in Genesis the Lord said: “I will go down and see whether they have done according to the cry that is come to me” (Gen. i8: 2i). From these authorities it is clearly proved that not only when a subject (that is, a cleric of a lower rank) but also when a prelate is guilty of excesses and these should come to the ears of the superior through complaint and report, not indeed from spiteful and slanderous persons, but from those who are prudent and upright persons, and not only once but often, he must in the presence of the seniors of the church carefully inquire into the truth of such reports, so that if they prove to be true, the guilty party may be duly punished without the superior being both accuser and judge in the matter. But, while this is to be observed in regard to subjects, the observance must be stricter in reference to prelates, who are, as it were, a ,target for the arrow. Because they cannot please all, since by their very office they are bound not only to rebuke but also at times to loose and bind, they frequently incur the hatred of many and are subject to insidious attacks. The holy fathers, therefore, wisely decreed that accusations against prelates must be accepted with great reserve lest, the pillars being shattered, the edifice itself fall unless proper precaution be exercised by which recourse not only to false but also malicious incrimination is precluded. They wished so to protect prelates that on the one hand they might not be unjustly accused, and on the other hand that they might be on their guard, lest they should become haughtily delinquent; finding a suitable remedy for each disease in the provision that a criminal accusation which calls for a diminutio capitis, that is, degradation, is by no means to be accepted, nisi legitima praecedat inscriptio. But when anyone shall have been accused on account of his excesses, so that the reports and whisperings arising therefrom cannot any longer be ignored without scandal or tolerated without danger, then steps, inspired not by hatred but by charity, must be taken without scruple toward an inquiry and punishment of his excesses. If it is a question of a grave offense, though not one that calls for a degradatio ab ordine, the accused must be deprived absolutely of all administrative authority, which is in accordance with the teaching of the Gospel, namely, that the steward who cannot render a proper account of his office as steward be deprived of his stewardship. He about whom inquiry is to be made must be present, unless he absents himself through stubbornness; and the matter to be investigated must be made known to him, that he may have opportunity to defend himself. Not only the testimony of the witnesses but also their names must be made known to him, that he may be aware who testified against him and what was their testimony; and finally, legitimate exceptions and replications must be admitted, lest by the suppression of names and by the exclusion of exceptions the boldness of the defamer and the false witness be encouraged. The diligence of the prelate in correcting the excesses of his subjects ought to be in proportion to the blameworthiness of allowing the offense to go unpunished. Against such offenders, to say nothing of those who are guilty of notorious crimes, there can be a threefold course of procedure, namely, by accusation, by denunciation, and by inquiry, in all of which, however, proper precaution must be exercised lest perchance by undue haste grave detriment should result. The accusation must be preceded by the legitima inscriptio, denunciation by the caritativa admonitio, and the inquiry by the clamosa insinuatio (diffamatio); such moderation to be always used that the forma sententiae be governed by the forma judicii. The foregoing, however, does not apply to regular clerics, who, when a reason exists, can be removed from their charges more easily and expeditiously.

Qualiter et quomodo debeat praelatus procedere ad inquirendum et puniendum subditorum excessus ex auctoritatibus novi et veteris testamenti colligitur evidenter ex quibus postea processerunt canonicae sanctiones sicut olim aperte distinximus et nunc sacri approbatione concilii confirmamus.   Legitur enim in evangelio quod villicus ille qui diffamatus erat apud dominum suum quasi dissipasset bona ipsius audivit ab illo quid hoc audio de te redde rationem villicationis tuae iam enim non poteris villicare.   Et in genesi dominus ait descendam et videbo utrum clamorem qui venit ad me opere compleverunt. Ex quibus auctoritatibus manifeste comprobatur quod non solum cum subditus verum etiam cum praelatus excedit si per clamorem et famam ad aures superioris pervenerit non quidem a malevolis et maledicis sed a providis et honestis nec semel tantum sed saepe quod clamor innuit et diffamatio manifestat debet coram ecclesiae senioribus veritatem diligentius perscrutari.   Et si rei poposcerit qualitas canonica districtio culpam feriat delinquentis non tamquam sit actor et iudex sed quasi deferente fama vel denunciante clamore officii sui debitum exequatur.   Licet autem hoc sit observandum in subditis diligentius tamen observandum est in praelatis qui quasi signum sunt positi ad sagittam.   Et quia non possunt omnibus complacere cum ex officio teneantur non solum arguere sed etiam increpare quin etiam interdum suspendere nonnunquam vero ligare frequenter odium multorum incurrunt et insidias patiuntur.   Ideo sancti patres provide statuerunt ut accusatio praelatorum non facile admittatur ne concussis columnis corruat aedificium nisi diligens adhibeatur cautela per quam non solum falsae sed etiam malignae criminationi ianua praecludatur.   Verum ita voluerunt providere praelatis ne criminarentur iniuste ut tamen caverent ne delinquerent insolenter contra morbum utrumque invenientes congruam medicinam videlicet ut criminalis accusatio quae ad diminutionem capitis id est degradationem intenditur nisi legitima praecedat inscriptio nullatenus admittatur.   Sed cum super excessibus suis quisquam fuerit infamatus ita ut iam clamor ascendat qui diutius sine scandalo dissimulari non possit vel sine periculo tolerari absque dubitationis scrupulo ad inquirendum et puniendum eius excessus non ex odii fomite sed caritatis procedatur affectu.   Quatenus si fuerit gravis excessus etsi non degradetur ab ordine ab administratione tamen amoveatur omnino quod est secundum evangelicam sententiam a villicatione villicum amoveri qui non potest villicationis suae dignam reddere rationem.   Debet igitur esse praesens is contra quem facienda est inquisitio nisi se per contumaciam absentaverit et exponenda sunt ei illa capitula de quibus fuerit inquirendum ut facultatem habeat defendendi se ipsum et non solum dicta sed etiam nomina ipsa testium sunt ei ut quid et a quo sit dictum appareat publicanda necnon exceptiones et replicationes legitimae admittendae ne per suppressionem nominum infamandi per exceptionum vero exclusionem deponendi falsum audacia praebeatur.   Ad corrigendos itaque subditorum excessus tanto diligentius debet praelatus assurgere quanto damnabilius eorum offensas desereret incorrectas contra quos ut de notoriis excessibus taceatur etsi tribus modis possit procedi per accusationem videlicet denunciationem et inquisitionem eorum ut tamen in omnibus diligens adhibeatur cautela ne forte per leve compendium ad grave dispendium veniatur sicut accusationem legitima praecedere debet inscriptio sic et denunciationem caritativa admonitio et inquisitionem clamosa insinuatio praevenire illo semper adhibito moderamine ut iuxta formam iudicii sententiae quoque forma dictetur. Hunc tamen ordinem circa regulares personas non credimus usquequaque servandum quae cum causa requirit facilius et liberius a suis possunt administrationibus amoveri.





CANON 9. In cities and dioceses where there are people of different languages, the bishop must provide suitable priests to minister to them. If necessity requires, let him appoint a vicar who shall be responsible to him. There may not, however, be two bishops in -the same diocese.






Text: Since in many places within the same city and diocese there are people of different languages having one faith but various rites and customs, we strictly command that the bishops of these cities and dioceses provide suitable men who will, according to the different rites and languages, celebrate the divine offices for them, administer the sacraments of the Church and instruct them by word and example. But we absolutely forbid that one and the same city or diocese have more than one bishop, one body, as it were, with several heads, which is a monstrosity. But if by reason of the aforesaid conditions an urgent necessity should arise, let the bishop of the locality after due deliberation appoint a prelate acceptable to those races, who shall act as vicar in the aforesaid matters and be subject to him all things. If anyone shall act otherwise, let him consider himself excommunicated; and if even then he will not amend, let him be deposed from every ecclesiastical ministry, and if need be, let the secular arm be employed, that such insolence may be curbed.

Quoniam in plerisque partibus intra eandem civitatem atque dioecesim permixti sunt populi diversarum linguarum habentes sub una fide varios ritus et mores districte praecipimus ut pontifices huiusmodi civitatum sive dioecesum provideant viros idoneos qui secundum diversitates rituum et linguarum divina officia illis celebrent et ecclesiastica sacramenta ministrent instruendo eos verbo pariter et exemplo.   Prohibemus autem omnino ne una eadem que civitas sive dioecesis diversos pontifices habeat tanquam unum corpus diversa capita quasi monstrum.   Sed si propter praedictas causas urgens necessitas postulaverit pontifex loci catholicum praesulem nationibus illis conformem provida deliberatione constituat sibi vicarium in praedictis qui ei per omnia sit obediens et subiectus unde si quis aliter se ingesserit excommunicationis se noverit mucrone percussum et si nec sic resipuerit ab omni ecclesiastico ministerio deponatur adhibito si necesse fuerit brachio saeculari ad tantam insolentiam compescendam.





CANON 10. Bishops who are unable to preach the word of God to the people are to provide suitable men to do it for them. They must see to it that the needs of the clergy so appointed are supplied, otherwise their work will prove a failure.






Among other things that pertain to the salvation of the Christian people, the food of the word of God is above all necessary, because as the body is nourished by material food, so is the soul nourished by spiritual food, since “not in bread alone doth man live but in every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God” (Matt. 4: 4). It often happens that bishops, on account of their manifold duties or bodily infirmities, or because of hostile invasions or other reasons, to say nothing of lack of learning, which must be absolutely condemned in them and is not to be tolerated in the future, are themselves unable to minister the word of God to the people, especially in large and widespread dioceses. Wherefore we decree that bishops provide suitable men, powerful in work and word, to exercise with fruitful result the office of preaching; who in place of the bishops, since these cannot do it, diligently visiting the people committed to them, may instruct them by word and example. And when they are in need, let them be supplied with the necessities, lest for want of these they may be compelled to abandon their work at the very beginning. Wherefore we command that in cathedral churches as well as in conventual churches suitable men be appointed whom the bishops may use as coadjutors and assistants, not only in the office of preaching but also in hearing confessions, imposing penances, and in other matters that pertain to the salvation of souls. If anyone neglect to comply with this, he shall be subject to severe punishment.

  Inter caetera quae ad salutem spectant populi christiani pabulum verbi dei permaxime sibi noscitur esse necessarium quia sicut corpus materiali sic anima spirituali cibo nutritur eo quod non in solo pane vivit homo sed in omni verbo quod procedit de ore dei.   Unde cum saepe contingat quod episcopi propter occupationes multiplices vel invaletudines corporales aut hostiles incursus seu occasiones alias ne dicamus defectum scientiae quod in eis est reprobandum omnino nec de caetero tolerandum per se ipsos non sufficiunt ministrare populo verbum dei maxime per amplas dioeceses et diffusas generali constitutione sancimus ut episcopi viros idoneos ad sanctae praedicationis officium salubriter exequendum assumant potentes in opere et sermone qui plebes sibi commissas vice ipsorum cum per se idem nequiverint sollicite visitantes eas verbo aedificent et exemplo.   Quibus ipsi cum indiguerint congrue necessaria ministrent ne pro necessariorum defectu compellantur desistere ab incoepto.   Unde praecipimus tam in cathedralibus quam in aliis conventualibus ecclesiis viros idoneos ordinari quos episcopi possint coadiutores et cooperatores habere non solum in praedicationis officio verum etiam in audiendis confessionibus et poenitentiis iniungendis ac caeteris quae ad salutem pertinent animarum.   Si quis autem hoc neglexerit adimplere districtae subiaceat ultioni.





CANON 11. In every cathedral church and other churches also that have sufficient means, a master is to be appointed to instruct gratis the clerics and poor students. The metropolitan church ought to have a theologian who shall teach the clergy whatever pertains to the cura animarum (i.e. care of souls).






Text. Since there are some who, on account of the lack of necessary means, are unable to acquire an education or to meet opportunities for perfecting themselves, the Third Lateran Council in a salutary decree provided that in every cathedral church a suitable benefice be assigned to a master who shall instruct gratis the clerics of that church and other poor students, by means of which benefice the material needs of the master might be relieved and to the students a way opened to knowledge. But, since in many churches this is not observed, we, confirming the aforesaid decree, add that, not only in every cathedral church but also in other churches where means are sufficient, a competent master be appointed by the prelate with his chapter, or elected by the greater and more discerning part of the chapter, who shall instruct gratis and to the best of his ability the clerics of those and other churches in the art of grammar and in other branches of knowledge. In addition to a master, let the metropolitan church have also a theologian, who shall instruct the priests and others in the Sacred Scriptures and in those things especially that pertain to the cura animarum. To each master let there be assigned by the chapter the revenue of one benefice, and to the theologian let as much be given by the metropolitan; not that they thereby become canons, but they shall enjoy the revenue only so long as they hold the office of instructor. If the metropolitan church cannot support two masters, then it shall provide for the theologian in the aforesaid manner, but for the one teaching grammar, let it see to it that a sufficiency is provided by another church of its city or diocese.

Quia nonnullis propter inopiam et legendi studium et opportunitas proficiendi subtrahitur in Lateranensi concilio pia fuit institutione provisum ut per unamquamque cathedralem ecclesiam magistro qui clericos eiusdem ecclesiae alios que scholares pauperes gratis instrueret aliquod competens beneficium praeberetur quo et docentis relevaretur necessitas et via pateret discentibus ad doctrinam. Verum quoniam in multis ecclesiis id minime observatur nos praedictum roborantes statutum adicimus ut non solum in qualibet cathedrali ecclesia sed etiam in aliis quarum sufficere poterunt facultates constituatur magister idoneus a praelato cum capitulo seu maiori ac saniori parte capituli eligendus qui clericos ecclesiarum ipsarum et aliarum gratis in grammaticae facultate ac aliis instruat iuxta posse.   Sane metropolitana ecclesia theologum nihilominus habeat qui sacerdotes et alios in sacra pagina doceat et in his praesertim informet quae ad curam animarum spectare noscuntur.   Assignetur autem cuilibet magistrorum a capitulo unius praebendae proventus et pro theologo a metropolitano tantundem non quod per hoc efficiatur canonicus sed tamdiu redditus ipsius percipiat quamdiu perstiterit in docendo.   Quod si forte de duobus magistris metropolitana ecclesia gravetur theologo iuxta modum praedictum ipsa provideat grammatico vero in alia ecclesia suae civitatis sive dioecesis quod sufficere valeat faciat provideri.





CANON 12. Provincial chapters of regulars are to be held every three years. All not canonically impeded must attend. The chapters to be under the guidance of two Cistercians, and careful attention is to be given to the reform of the order and to regular observance. Visitation of monasteries and nunneries. Ordinaries must strive to reform monasteries and ward off molestation of them by lay officials.






In every ecclesiastical province there shall be held every three years, saving the right of the diocesan ordinaries, a general chapter of abbots and of priors having no abbots, who have not been accustomed to celebrate such chapters. This shall be held in a monastery best adapted to this purpose and shall be attended by all who are not canonically impeded, with this restriction, however, that no one bring with him more than six horses and eight persons. In inaugurating this new arrangement, let two neighboring abbots of the Cistercian order be invited to give them counsel and opportune assistance, since among them the celebration of such chapters is of long standing. These two Cistercians shall without hindrance choose from those present two whom they consider the most competent, and these four shall preside over the entire chapter, so that no one of these four may assume the authority of leadership; should it become expedient, they may be changed by prudent deliberation. Such a chapter shall be celebrated for several consecutive days according the custom of the Cistercian order. During its deliberations careful attention is to be given to the reform of the order and to regular observance, and what has been enacted with the approval of the four shall be observed inviolably by all, excuses, contradictions, and appeals to the contrary notwithstanding. In each of these chapters the place for the holding of the following one is to be determined. All those in attendance, even if f or want of room many must occupy other houses, must live the vita communis and bear proportionately all common expenses. In the same chapter religious and prudent persons should be appointed who, in our name, shall visit every abbey in the province, not only of monks but also of nuns, according to a form prescribed for them, correcting and reforming those things that need correction and reform; so that, if they should know that the rector of a locality ought to be removed from office, let them make it known to his bishop, that he may procure his removal; but if he should neglect to do it, then the appointed visitors shall refer the matter to the attention of the Apostolic See. We wish and command that canons regular observe this according to their order. But if in this new arrangement a difficulty should arise which cannot be disposed of by the aforesaid persons, let it be referred without scandal to the judgment of the Apostolic See; in the meantime let the other things that have been accomplished by amicable deliberation be in. violably observed. Moreover, the diocesan ordinaries must strive so to reform the monasteries subject to them, that when the aforesaid visitors come to them they will find in them more that is worthy of commendation than of correction, taking special care lest the monasteries be oppressed by them with undue burdens. For, while we wish that the rights of the superiors be respected, we do not on that account wish that injury be sustained by inferiors. We strictly command diocesan bishops and persons attending the chapters, that with ecclesiastical censure-every appeal being denied-they restrain advocates, patrons, vicegerents, rulers, consuls, nobles, and soldiers, and all others, from molesting the monasteries either in persons or properties and if perchance these persons should so molest, let the aforesaid bishops and chapter members not neglect to compel these latter to make satisfaction, that the monasteries may serve Almighty God more freely and peacefully.

  In singulis regnis sive provinciis fiat de triennio in triennium salvo iure dioecesanorum pontificum commune capitulum abbatum atque priorum abbates proprios non habentium qui non consueverunt tale capitulum celebrare.   Ad quod universi conveniant praepeditionem canonicam non habentes apud unum de monasteriis ad hoc aptum hoc adhibito moderamine ut nullus eorum plus quam sex evectiones et octo personas adducat.   Advocent autem caritative in huius novitatis primordiis duos Cisterciensis ordinis abbates vicinos ad praestandum sibi consilium et auxilium opportunum cum sint in huiusmodi capitulis celebrandis ex longa consuetudine plenius informati.   Qui absque contradictione duos sibi de ipsis associent quos viderint expedire.   Ac ipsi quatuor praesint capitulo universo ita quod ex hoc nullus eorum auctoritatem praelationis assumat unde cum expedierit provida possint deliberatione mutari.   Huiusmodi vero capitulum aliquot certis diebus continue iuxta morem Cisterciensium celebretur in quo diligens habeatur tractatus de reformatione ordinis et observantia regulari et quod statutum fuerit illis quatuor approbantibus ab omnibus inviolabiliter observetur omni excusatione et contradictione ac appellatione remotis. Proviso nihilominus ubi sequenti termino debeat capitulum celebrari.   Et qui convenerint vitam ducant communem et faciant proportionabiliter simul omnes communes expensas ita quod si non omnes potuerint in eisdem saltem plures simul in diversis domibus commorentur.   Ordinentur etiam in eodem capitulo religiosae ac circumspectae personae quae singulas abbatias eiusdem regni sive provinciae non solum monachorum sed etiam monialium secundum formam sibi praefixam vice nostra studeant visitare corrigentes et reformantes quae correctionis et reformationis officio viderint indigere ita quod si rectorem loci cognoverint ab administratione penitus amovendum denuncient episcopo proprio ut illum amovere procuret.   Quod si non fecerit ipsi visitatores hoc referant ad apostolicae sedis examen.   Hoc ipsum regulares canonicos secundum ordinem suum volumus et praecipimus observare.   Si vero in hac novitate quicquam difficultatis emerserit quod per praedictas personas nequeat expediri ad apostolicae sedis iudicium absque scandalo referatur caeteris irrefragabiliter observatis quae concordi fuerint deliberatione provisa.   Porro dioecesani episcopi monasteria sibi subiecta ita studeant reformare ut cum ad ea praedicti visitatores accesserint plus in illis inveniant quod commendatione quam quod correctione sit dignum attentissime praecaventes ne per eos dicta monasteria indebitis oneribus aggraventur quia sic volumus superiorum iura servari ut inferiorum nolimus iniurias sustinere.   Ad hoc districte praecipimus tam dioecesanis episcopis quam personis que praeerunt capitulis celebrandis ut per censuram ecclesiasticam appellatione remota compescant advocatos patronos vicedominos rectores et consules magnates et milites seu quoslibet alios ne monasteria praesumant offendere in personis ac rebus.   Et si forsitan offenderint eos ad satisfactionem compellere non omittant ut liberius et quietius omnipotenti deo valeant famulari.







CANON 13. The founding of new religious orders is forbidden. New monasteries must accept a rule already approved. A monk may not reside in different monasteries nor may one abbot preside over several monasteries.






Lest too great a diversity of religious orders lead to grave confusion in the Church of God, we strictly forbid anyone in the future to found a new order, but whoever should wish to enter an order, let him choose one already approved. Similarly, he who would wish to found a new monastery, must accept a rule already proved. We forbid also anyone to presume to be a monk in different monasteries (that is, belong to different monasteries), or that one abbot preside over several monasteries.

  Ne nimia religionum diversitas gravem in ecclesia dei confusionem inducat firmiter prohibemus ne quis de caetero novam religionem inveniat sed quicumque voluerit ad religionem converti unam de approbatis assumat.Similiter qui voluerit religiosam domum fundare de novo regulam et institutionem accipiat de religionibus approbatis.   Illud etiam prohibemus ne quis in diversis monasteriis locum monachi habere praesumat nec unus abbas pluribus monasteriis praesidere.





CANON 14. Clerics, especially those in sacred orders, shall live chastely and virtuously. Anyone suspended for incontinency who presumes to celebrate the divine mysteries shall be forever deposed.






That the morals and general conduct of clerics may be better let all strive to live chastely and virtuously, particularly those in sacred orders, guarding against every vice of desire, especially that on account of which the anger of God came from heaven upon the children of unbelief, so that in the sight of Almighty God they may perform their duties with a pure heart and chaste body. But lest the facility to obtain pardon be an incentive to do wrong, we decree that whoever shall be found to indulge in the vice of incontinence, shall, in proportion to the gravity of his sin, be punished in accordance with the canonical statutes, which we command to be strictly and rigorously observed, so that he whom divine fear does not restrain from evil, may at least be withheld from sin by a temporal penalty. If therefore anyone suspended for this reason shall presume to celebrate the divine mysteries, let him not only be deprived of his ecclesiastical benefices but for this twofold offense let him be forever deposed. Prelates who dare support such in their iniquities, especially in view of money or other temporal advantages, shall be subject to a like punishment. But if those. who according to the practice of their country have not renounced the conjugal bond, fall by the vice of impurity, they are to be punished more severely, since they can use matrimony lawfully.

  Ut clericorum mores et actus in melius reformentur continenter et caste vivere studeant universi praesertim in sacris ordinibus constituti ab omni libidinis vitio praecaventes maxime illo propter quod ira dei venit de coelo in filios diffidentiae quatenus in conspectu dei omnipotentis puro corde ac mundo corpore valeant ministrare.   Ne vero facilitas veniae incentivum tribuat delinquendi statuimus ut qui deprehensi fuerint incontinentiae vitio laborare prout magis aut minus peccaverint puniantur secundum canonicas sanctiones quas efficacius et districtius praecipimus observari ut quos divinus timor a malo non revocat temporalis saltem poena a peccato cohibeat.   Si quis igitur hac de causa suspensus divina celebrare praesumpserit non solum ecclesiasticis beneficiis spolietur verum etiam pro hac duplici culpa perpetuo deponatur.   Praelati vero qui tales praesumpserint in suis iniquitatibus sustinere maxime obtentu pecuniae vel alterius commodi temporalis pari subiaceant ultioni.   Qui autem secundum regionis suae morem non abdicarunt copulam coniugalem si lapsi fuerint gravius puniantur cum legitimo matrimonio possint uti.





CANON 15. Clerics, who after being warned do not abstain from drunkenness, shall be suspended from their office and benefice.






All clerics shall carefully abstain from drunkenness. Wherefore, let them accommodate the wine to themselves, and themselves to the wine. Nor shall anyone be encouraged to drink, for drunkenness banishes reason and incites to lust.

  A crapula et ebrietate omnes clerici diligenter abstineant unde vinum sibi temperent et se vino nec ad bibendum quispiam incitetur cum ebrietas et mentis inducat exilium et libidinis provocet incentivum.  

We decree, therefore, that that abuse be absolutely abolished by which in some localities the drinkers bind themselves suo modo to an equal portion of drink and he in their judgment is the hero of the day who out- drinks the others. Should anyone be culpable in this matter, unless he heeds the warning of the superior and makes suitable satisfaction, let him be suspended from his benefice or office. Unde illum abusum decernimus penitus abolendum quo in quibusdam partibus ad potus aequales suo modo se obligant potatores et ille iudicio talium plus laudatur qui plures inebriat et calices faecundiores exhaurit.   Si quis autem super his culpabilem se exhibuerit nisi a superiore commonitus satisfecerit competenter a beneficio vel officio suspendatur.

We forbid hunting and fowling to all clerics; wherefore, let them not presume to keep dogs and birds for these purposes.






CANON 16. Clerics are not to engage in secular pursuits, attend unbecoming exhibitions, visit taverns, or play games of chance. Their clothing must be in keeping with their dignity.






Clerics shall not hold secular offices or engage in secular and, above all, dishonest pursuits. They shall not attend the performances of mimics and buffoons, or theatrical representations. They shall not visit taverns except in case of necessity, namely, when on a journey. They are forbidden to play games of chance or be present at them. They must have a becoming crown and tonsure and apply themselves diligently to the study of the divine offices and other useful subjects. Their garments must be worn clasped at the top and neither too short nor too long. They are not to use red or green garments or curiously sewed together gloves, or beak-shaped shoes or gilded bridles, saddles, pectoral ornaments (for horses), spurs, or anything else indicative of superfluity. At the divine office in the church they are not to wear cappas with long sleeves, and priests and dignitaries may not wear them elsewhere except in case of danger when circumstances should require a change of outer garments. Buckles may under no condition be worn, nor sashes having ornaments of gold or silver, nor rings, unless it be in keeping with the dignity of their office. All bishops must use in public and in the church outer garments made of linen, except those who are monks, in which case they must wear the habit of their order; in public they must not appear with open mantles, but these must be clasped either on the back of the neck or on the bosom.

  Venationem et aucupationem universis clericis interdicimus unde nec canes nec aves ad aucupandum habere praesumant.   Clerici officia vel commercia saecularia non exerceant maxime inhonesta mimis ioculatoribus et histrionibus non intendant et tabernas prorsus evitent nisi forte causa necessitatis in itinere constituti.   Ad aleas vel taxillos non ludant nec huiusmodi ludis intersint.   Coronam et tonsuram habeant congruentem et se in officiis divinis et aliis bonis exerceant studiis diligenter.   Clausa deferant desuper indumenta nimia brevitate vel longitudine non notanda.   Pannis rubeis aut viridibus necnon manicis aut sotularibus consuticiis seu rostratis frenis sellis pectoralibus et calcaribus deauratis aut aliam superfluitatem gerentibus non utantur.   Cappas manicatas ad divinum officium intra ecclesiam non gerant sed nec alibi qui sunt in sacerdotio vel personatibus constituti nisi iusti causa timoris exegerit habitum transformari.   Fibulas omnino non ferant neque corrigias auri vel argenti ornatum habentes sed nec anulos nisi quibus competit ex officio dignitatis.   Pontifices autem in publico et in ecclesia superindumentis lineis omnes utantur nisi monachi fuerint quos oportet deferre habitum monachalem.   Palliis diffibulatis non utantur in publico sed vel post collum vel ante pectus hinc inde connexis.





CANON 17. Prelates and clerics are commanded in virtue of obedience to celebrate diligently and devoutly the diurnal and nocturnal offices.






It is a matter for regret that there are some minor clerics and even prelates who spend half of the night in banqueting and in unlawful gossip, not to mention other abuses, and in giving the remainder to sleep. They are scarcely awakened by the diurnal concerts of the birds. Then they hasten through matins in a hurried and careless manner. There are others who say mass scarcely four times a year and, what is worse, do not even attend mass, and when they are present they are engaged outside in conversation with lay people to escape the silence of the choir; so that, while they readily lend their ears to unbecoming talk, they regard with utter indifference things that are divine. These and all similar things, therefore, ,we absolutely forbid under penalty of suspension, and strictly command in virtue of obedience that they celebrate diligently and devoutly the diurnal and nocturnal offices so far as God gives them strength.

Dolentes referimus quod non solum quidam minores clerici verum etiam aliqui ecclesiarum praelati circa comessationes superfluas et confabulationes illicitas ut de aliis taceamus fere medietatem noctis expendunt et somno residuum relinquentes vix ad diurnum concentum avium excitantur transcurrendo undique continuata syncopa matutinum.   Sunt et alii qui missarum celebrant solemnia vix quater in anno et quod deterius est interesse contemnunt et si quando dum haec celebrantur intersunt chori silentium fugientes intendunt externis collocutionibus laicorum dum que auditum ad indebitos sermones effundunt aures intentas non porrigunt ad divina.   Haec igitur et similia sub poena suspensionis penitus inhibemus districte praecipientes in virtute obedientiae ut divinum officium diurnum pariter et nocturnum quantum eis deus dederit studiose celebrent pariter et devote.

16.Clerics & Bloodshed




CANON 18. Clerics may neither pronounce nor execute a sentence of death. Nor may they act as judges in extreme criminal cases, or take part in matters connected with judicial tests and ordeals.






No cleric may pronounce a sentence of death, or execute such a sentence, or be present at its execution. If anyone in consequence of this prohibition (hujusmodi occasions statuti) should presume to inflict damage on churches or injury on ecclesiastical persons, let him be restrained by ecclesiastical censure. Nor may any cleric write or dictate letters destined for the execution of such a sentence. Wherefore, in the chanceries of the princes let this matter be committed to laymen and not to clerics. Neither may a cleric act as judge in the case of the Rotarrii, archers, or other men of this kind devoted to the shedding of blood. No subdeacon, deacon, or priest shall practice that part of surgery involving burning and cutting. Neither shall anyone in judicial tests or ordeals by hot or cold water or hot iron bestow any blessing; the earlier prohibitions in regard to dueling remain in force.

  Sententiam sanguinis nullus clericus dictet aut proferat sed nec sanguinis vindictam exerceat aut ubi exercetur intersit.   Si quis autem huiusmodi occasione statuti ecclesiis vel personis ecclesiasticis aliquod praesumpserit inferre dispendium per censuram ecclesiasticam compescatur nec quisquam clericus literas scribat aut dictet pro vindicta sanguinis destinandas unde in curiis principum haec solicitudo non clericis sed laicis committatur.   Nullus quoque clericus rottariis aut balistariis aut huiusmodi viris sanguinum praeponatur nec illam chirurgiae artem subdiaconus diaconus vel sacerdos exerceant quae ad ustionem vel incisionem inducit nec quisquam purgationi aquae ferventis vel frigidae seu ferri candentis ritum cuiuslibet benedictionis aut consecrationis impendat salvis nihilominus prohibitionibus de monomachiis sive duellis antea promulgatis.





CANON 19. Household goods must not be stored in churches unless there be an urgent necessity. Churches, church vessels, and the like must be kept clean.








Text: We do not wish to leave uncorrected the practice of certain clerics who convert the churches into storehouses for their own household goods and also for those of others,”‘ so that the churches have the appearance of the houses of lay people rather than of the house of God, not considering that the Lord does not permit the carrying of a vessel through the temple. There are also others who not only neglect to keep the churches clean but also leave the vessels, vestments, palls, and corporals so unclean that sometimes they are a source of aversion. Wherefore, since the zeal of the house of God hath eaten us up (John 2: I 7), we strictly forbid that household goods be placed in the churches, unless by reason of hostile invasion, sudden fire, or other urgent reasons it should become necessary to store them there. When, however, the necessity no longer exists, let them be returned to their proper place. We command also that the aforesaid churches, vessels, corporals, and vestments be kept clean and bright. For it is absurd to tolerate in sacred things a filthiness that is unbecoming even in profane things.

  Relinqui nolumus incorrectum quod quidam clerici sic exponunt ecclesias supellectilibus propriis et etiam alienis ut potius domus laicae quam dei basilicae videantur non considerantes quod dominus non sinebat ut vas transferretur per templum.   Sunt et alii qui non solum ecclesias dimittunt incultas verum etiam vasa ministerii et vestimenta ministrorum ac pallas altaris necnon et ipsa corporalia tam immunda relinquunt quod interdum aliquibus sunt horrori.   Quia vero zelus nos comedit domus dei firmiter prohibemus ne huiusmodi supellectilia in ecclesias admittantur nisi propter hostiles incursus aut incendia repentina seu alias necessitates urgentes ad eas oporteat haberi refugium.   Sic tamen ut necessitate cessante res in loca pristina reportentur. Praecipimus quoque ut oratoria vasa corporalia et vestimenta praedicta munda et nitida conserventur.   Nimis enim videtur absurdum in sacris sordes negligere quae dedecerent etiam in prophanis.





CANON 20. In all churches the Eucharist and the chrism must be kept under lock and key. Those who neglect to do this are to be suspended.






Text: We decree that in all churches the chrism and the Eucharist be kept in properly protected places provided with locks and keys, that they may not be reached by rash and indiscreet persons and used for impious and blasphemous purposes. But if he to whom such guardianship pertains should leave them unprotected, let him be suspended from office for a period of three months. And if through his negligence an execrable deed should result, let him be punished more severely.

  Statuimus ut in cunctis ecclesiis chrisma et eucharistia sub fideli custodia clavibus adhibitis conserventur ne possit ad illa temeraria manus extendi ad aliqua horribilia vel nefaria exercenda.   Si vero is ad quem spectat custodia ea incaute reliquerit tribus mensibus ab officio suspendatur et si per eius incuriam aliquid nefandum inde contigerit graviori subiaceat ultioni.







CANON 21. Annual confession to parish pastor; with his permission to another; receive Eucharist at least at Easter. Confessional Secrecy - penalties.






ALL the faithful of both sexes shall after they have reached the age of discretion[:] Omnis utriusque sexus fidelis postquam ad annos discretionis pervenerit

[1] faithfully confess all their sins at least once a year to their own (parish) priest and

[2] perform to the best of their ability the penance imposed,

[3] receiving reverently at least at Easter the sacrament of the Eucharist,

omnia sua solus peccata confiteatur fideliter saltem semel in anno proprio sacerdoti

 et iniunctam sibi poenitentiam studeat pro viribus adimplere suscipiens

 reverenter ad minus in pascha eucharistiae sacramentum

unless perchance at the advice of their own priest they may for a good reason abstain for a time from its reception; nisi forte de consilio proprii sacerdotis ob aliquam rationabilem causam ad tempus ab eius perceptione duxerit abstinendum.  
otherwise they shall be cut off from the Church (excommunicated) during life and deprived of Christian burial in death. Wherefore, let this salutary decree be published frequently in the churches, that no one may find in the plea of ignorance a shadow of excuse. Alioquin et vivens ab ingressu ecclesiae arceatur et moriens christiana careat sepultura.   Unde hoc salutare statutum frequenter in ecclesiis publicetur ne quisquam ignorantiae caecitate velamen excusationis assumat.  

BUT if anyone for a good reason should wish to confess his sins to another priest, let him first seek and obtain permission from his own (parish) priest, since otherwise he (the other priest) cannot loose or bind him.

  Si quis autem alieno sacerdoti voluerit iusta de causa sua confiteri peccata licentiam prius postulet et obtineat a proprio sacerdote cum aliter ille ipsum non possit solvere vel ligare.

LET the priest be discreet and cautious that he may pour wine and oil into the wounds of the one injured after the manner of a skilful physician, carefully inquiring into the circumstances of the sinner and the sin, from the nature of which he may understand what kind of advice to give and what remedy to apply, making use of different experiments to heal the sick one. Sacerdos autem sit discretus et cautus ut more periti medici superinfundat vinum et oleum vulneribus sauciati diligenter inquirens et peccatoris circumstantias et peccati per quas prudenter intelligat quale illi consilium debeat exhibere et cuiusmodi remedium adhibere diversis experimentis utendo ad sanandum aegrotum.  
BUT let him exercise the greatest precaution that he does not in any degree by word, sign, or any other manner make known the sinner, but should he need more prudent counsel, let him seek it cautiously without any mention of the person. Caveat autem omnino ne verbo vel signo vel alio quovis modo prodat aliquatenus peccatorem sed si prudentiori consilio indiguerit illud absque ulla expressione personae caute requirat

He who dares to reveal a sin confided to him in the tribunal of penance, we decree that he be not only deposed from the sacerdotal office but also relegated to a monastery of strict observance to do penance for the remainder of his life.

 quoniam qui peccatum in poenitentiali iudicio sibi detectum praesumpserit revelare non solum a sacerdotali officio deponendum decernimus verum etiam ad agendam perpetuam poenitentiam in arctum monasterium detrudendum.





CANON 22. Physicians of the body called to the bedside of the sick shall before all advise them to call for the physician of souls, so that, spiritual health being restored, bodily health will follow.






Since bodily infirmity is sometimes caused by sin, the Lord saying to the sick man whom he had healed: “Go and sin no more, lest some worse thing happen to thee” (John 5: 14), we declare in the present decree and strictly command that when physicians of the body are called to the bedside of the sick, before all else they admonish them to call for the physician of souls, so that after spiritual health has been restored to them, the application of bodily medicine may be of greater benefit, for the cause being removed the effect will pass away. We publish this decree for the reason that some, when they are sick and are advised by the physician in the course of the sickness to attend to the salvation of their soul, give up all hope and yield more easily to the danger of death. If any .physician shall transgress this decree after it has been published by bishops, let him be cut off (arceatur) from the Church till he has made suitable satisfaction for his transgression. And since the soul is far more precious than the body, we forbid under penalty of anathema that a physician advise a patient to have recourse to sinful means for the recovery of bodily health.

Cum infirmitas corporalis nonnumquam ex peccato proveniat dicente domino languido quem sanaverat vade et amplius noli peccare ne deterius aliquid tibi contingat decreto praesenti statuimus et districte praecipimus medicis corporum ut cum eos ad infirmos vocari contigerit ipsos ante omnia moneant et inducant quod medicos advocent animarum ut postquam infirmis fuerit de spirituali salute provisum ad corporalis medicinae remedium salubrius procedatur cum causa cessante cesset effectus.   Hoc quidem inter alia huic causam dedit edicto quod quidam in aegritudinis lecto iacentes cum eis a medicis suadetur ut de animarum salute disponant in desperationis articulum incidunt unde facilius mortis periculum incurrunt.   Si quis autem medicorum huius nostrae constitutionis postquam per praelatos locorum fuerit publicata transgressor extiterit tamdiu ab ingressu ecclesiae arceatur donec pro transgressione huiusmodi satisfecerit competenter.   Ceterum cum anima sit multo pretiosior corpore sub interminatione anathematis prohibemus ne quis medicorum pro corporali salute aliquid aegroto suadeat quod in periculum animae convertatur.





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