Selections: 1, 7-35


 Gregory Nazianzen   St. Kath., Sinai 1140





ΛΟΓΟΣ Β. Apologetica (orat. 2) PG 35. 408-513

 Gregory leaves Constantinople,
 11th cent.Codex Taphous 14.






In Defense of His Flight to Pontus, and His Return, After His Ordination to the Priesthood, with an Exposition of the Character of the Priestly Office.

Τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀπολογητικὸς τῆς εἰς τὸν Πόντον φυγῆς ἕνεκεν͵ καὶ αὖθις ἐπανόδου ἐκεῖθεν͵ με τὰ τὴν τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου χειροτονίαν͵ ἐν ᾧ τί τὸ τῆς ἱερωσύνης ἐπάγγελμα.

1. I have been defeated, and own my defeat. I subjected myself to the Lord, and prayed unto Him.1 Let the most blessed David supply my exordium, or rather let Him Who spoke in David, and even now yet speaks through him. For indeed the very best order of beginning every speech and action, is to begin from God,2 and to end in God.

Α· ῞Ηττημαι͵ καὶ τὴν ἧτταν ὁμολογῶ· ὑπ ετάγην τῷ Κυρίῳ͵ καὶ ἱκέτευσα αὐτόν·ῃ ὁ γάρ μοι μακαριώτατος Δαβὶδ ἀρχέτω τοῦ λόγου· μᾶλλον δὲ ὁ ἐν τῷ Δαβὶδ φθεγξάμενος͵ καὶ εἰσέτι καὶ νῦν δι΄ αὐτοῦ φθεγγόμενος. Ἐπειδὴ καὶ τάξις ἀρίστη παντὸς ἀρχομένῳ καὶ λόγου καὶ πράγμα τος͵ ἐκ Θεοῦ τε ἄρχεσθαι͵ καὶ εἰς Θεὸν ἀναπαύε σθαι.

As to the cause, either of my original revolt and cowardice, in which I got me away far off, and remained3 away from you for a time, which perhaps seemed long to those who missed me; or of the present gentleness and change of mind, in which I have given myself up again to you, men may think and speak in different ways, according to the hatred or love they bear me, on the one side refusing to acquit me of the charges alleged, on the other giving me a hearty welcome.  Τὸ δὲ αἴτιον ἢ τῆς πρωτοῦ στάσεως καὶ ὀλιγοψυχίας͵ῃ δι΄ ἣν ἐμάκρυνα φυγαδεύων͵ῃ καὶ ηὐλίσθην ἀφ΄ ὑμῶν χρόνον οὐ μικρὸν ἴσως τοῖς γε πο θοῦσιν͵ ἢ τῆς νῦν ἡμερότητος καὶ μεταβολῆς͵ δι΄ ἣν αὖθις ἐμαυτὸν ἔδωκα φέρων ὑμῖν͵ ἄλλος μὲν ἄλ λο τι οἰέσθω τε καὶ λεγέτω τῶν ἢ μισούντων ἢ ἀγα πώντων ἡμᾶς· ὁ μὲν οὐκ ἀφιεὶς αἰτίας͵ ὁ δὲ καὶ προσαποδεχόμενος·
For nothing is so pleasant to men as talking of other people’s business, especially under the influence of affection or hatred, which often almost entirely blinds us to the truth. I will, however, myself, unabashed, set forth the truth, and arbitrate with justice between the two parties, which accuse or gallantly defend us, by, on the one side, accusing myself, on the other, undertaking my own defence. οὐδὲν γὰρ οὕτως ἡδὺ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὡς τὸ λαλεῖν τὰ ἀλλότρια͵ καὶ μάλιστα ἐὰν τύχωσιν ὑπ΄ εὐνοίας τινὸς ἢ μίσους ἑλκόμενοι͵ ὑφ΄ ὧν καὶ φιλεῖ κλέπτεσθαι ὡς τὰ πολλὰ ἡ ἀλήθεια. Ἐγὼ δὲ τἀληθὲς εἰς μέσον θήσω͵ μηδὲν αἰσχυν θεὶς͵ καὶ διαιτήσω δικαίως ἀμφοτέροις τοῖς μέρεσιν͵ ὅσοι τε κατηγοροῦσιν ἡμῶν͵ καὶ ὅσοι ὑπεραπολογοῦν ται προθύμως· τὸ μέν τι κατηγορήσας ἐμαυτοῦ͵ τὸ δὲ ὑπεραπο-λογησάμενος







7. For nothing seemed to me so desirable as to close the doors of my senses, and, escaping from the flesh and the world, collected within myself, having no further connection than was absolutely necessary with human affairs, and speaking to myself and to God 18 to live superior to visible things, ever preserving in myself the divine impressions pure and unmixed with the erring tokens of this lower world, Ζ. Οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐδόκει μοι τοιοῦτον οἷον μύσαντα τὰς αἰσθήσεις͵ ἔξω σαρκὸς καὶ κόσμου γενόμενον͵ εἰς ἑαυτὸν συστραφέντα͵ μηδενὸς τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων προσ απτόμενον͵ ὅτι μὴ πᾶσα ἀνάγκη͵ ἑαυτῷ προσλαλοῦν τα καὶ τῷ Θεῷ͵ ζῇν ὑπὲρ τὰ ὁρώμενα͵ καὶ τὰς θείας ἐμφάσεις ἀεὶ καθαρὰς ἐν ἑαυτῷ φέρειν ἀμιγεῖς τῶν κάτω χαρακτήρων καὶ πλανωμένων͵
and both being, and constantly growing more and more to be, a real unspotted mirror of God and divine things, as light is added to light, and what was still dark grew clearer, enjoying already by hope the blessings of the world to come, roaming about with the angels, even now being above the earth by having forsaken it, and stationed on high by the Spirit. ὄντως ἔσοπτρον ἀκηλίδωτον Θεοῦ καὶ τῶν θείων καὶ ὂν καὶ ἀεὶ 416 γινόμενον͵ φωτὶ προσλαμβάνοντα φῶς͵ καὶ ἀμαυρο τέρῳ τρανότερον͵ ἤδη τὸ τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος ἀγαθὸν ταῖς ἐλπίσι καρπούμενον͵ καὶ συμπεριπολεῖν ἀγ γέλοις͵ ἔτι ὑπὲρ γῆς ὄντα καταλιπόντα τὴν γῆν͵ καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος ἄνω τιθέμενον.

If any of you has been possessed by this longing, he knows what I mean and will sympathize with my feelings at that time. For, perhaps, I ought not to expect to persuade most people by what I say, since they are unhappily disposed to laugh at such things, either from their own thoughtlessness, or from the influence of men unworthy of the promise, who have bestowed upon that which is good an evil name, calling philosophy nonsense, aided by envy and the evil tendencies of the mob, who are ever inclined to grow worse: so that they are constantly occupied with one of two sins, either the commission of evil, or the discrediting of good.

Εἴ τις ὑμῶν τούτῳ τῷ ἔρωτι κάτοχος͵ οἶδεν ὃ λέγω͵ καὶ τῷ τότε πάθει συγγνώσεται· τοὺς γὰρ πολλοὺς οὐδ΄ ἂν πείσαιμι λέγων ἴσως͵ ὅσοις καὶ ἐν γέλωτι τὸ πρᾶγμα δοκεῖ͵ κακῶς διατεθεῖσιν εἴτε ὑπὸ τῆς ἰδίας αὐτῶν ἀνοίας͵ εἴτε ὑπὸ τῶν ἀναξίων τοῦ ἐπαγγέλματος· οἳ πράγματι καλῷ κακὸν περι τεθείκασιν ὄνομα͵ τῇ φιλοσοφίᾳ τὴν κενοδοξίαν͵ συν εργὸν λαβόντες τὸν φθόνον καὶ τὴν τῶν πολλῶν κα κίαν πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον οὖσαν ἑτοιμοτέραν· ἵν΄ ἕν γέ τι πάντως αὐτοῖς ἁμαρτάνηται͵ ἢ τὸ κακὸν ἐνερ γούμενον͵ ἢ τὸ καλὸν ἀπιστούμενον.





9. Lastly, there is a matter more serious than any which I have mentioned, for I am now coming to the finale 25 of the question: and I will not deceive you; for that would not be lawful in regard to topics of such moment. I did not, nor do I now, think myself qualified to rule a flock or herd, or to have authority over the souls of men. [...]

Θ. Ὃ δὲ τελευταῖον καὶ μεῖζον τῶν εἰρημένων͵ εἶμι γὰρ ἐπ΄ αὐτὸν ἤδη τὸν κολοφῶνα τοῦ λόγου͵ καὶ οὐ ψεύσομαι· οὐδὲ γὰρ θέμις τοῖς περὶ τηλικού των ποιουμένοις τὸν λόγον· οὐκ ᾤμην ἴσον εἶναι͵ οὐδὲ νῦν οἴομαι͵ ποίμνης ἄρχειν ἢ βουκολίου͵ καὶ ἀνθρώπων ἐπιστατεῖν ψυχαῖς.





10. In the case of man, hard as it is for him to learn how to submit to rule, it seems far harder to know how to rule over men, and hardest of all, with this rule of ours, which leads them by the divine law, and to God, for its risk is, in the eyes of a thoughtful man, proportionate to its height and dignity. For, first of all, he must, like silver or gold, though in general circulation in all kinds of seasons and affairs, never ring false or alloyed, or give token of any inferior matter, needing further refinement in the fire; 26 or else, the wider his rule, the greater evil he will be. Since the injury which extends to many is greater than that which is confined to a single individual.

Ι. Ἀνθρώπῳ δὲ χαλεποῦ ὄντος τοῦ εἰδέναι ἄρχε σθαι͵ κινδυνεύει πολλῷ χαλεπώτερον εἶναι τὸ εἰδέναι ἄρχειν ἀνθρώπων͵ καὶ μάλιστα δὴ ἀρχὴν ταύ την τὴν ἡμετέραν͵ τὴν ἐν νόμῳ θείῳ͵ καὶ πρὸς Θεὸν ἄγουσαν͵ ἧς ὅσον τὸ ὕψος καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμα͵ τοσοῦ τος καὶ ὁ κίνδυνος τῷ γε νοῦν ἔχοντι. Ὅν γε πρῶ τον μὲν δεήσει͵ καθάπερ ἄργυρον ἢ χρυσὸν͵ παντα χόθεν στρεφόμενον͵ καὶ ἐν παντοίοις καιροῖς καὶ πράγμασι͵ μηδαμοῦ κίβδηλον ἠχεῖν ἢ ὑπόχαλκον͵ μηδέ τι φέρειν ἐν ἑαυτῷ ὕλης τῆς χείρονος͵ καὶ θερ μοτέρου πυρὸς ἀξίας· ἢ τοσούτῳ μεῖζον ἔσται κα κὸν͵ ὅσῳ περ ἂν ἄρχῃ πλειόνων· εἴπερ καὶ μεί ζων τῆς περὶ ἕνα ἱσταμένης πονηρίας ἡ εἰς πολλοὺς ὁδεύουσα.





13. This then is the first point in what we have said, which it is right for us to guard against: being found to be bad painters 29 of the charms of virtue, and still more, if not, perhaps, models for poor painters, poor models for the people, or barely escaping the proverb, that we undertake to heal others 30 while ourselves are full of sores.

ΙΓ. Πρῶτον μὲν δὴ τοῦτο͵ ὧν εἴπομεν͵ εὐλαβεῖσθαι ἄξιον͵ μὴ φαινώμεθα τῆς θαυμασίας ἀρετῆς κακοὶ ζωγράφοι͵ μᾶλλον δὲ ζωγράφων οὐ φαύλων ἴσως͵ τῶν δὲ πολλῶν φαῦλον ἀρχέτυπον· 35.424 ἢ τῆς παροιμίας μὴ πόῤῥω θέωμεν͵ ἄλλους ἰατρεύ ειν ἐπιχειροῦντες αὐτοὶ βρύοντες ἕλκεσι.





14. In the second place, although a man has kept himself pure from sin, even in a very high degree; I do not know that even this is sufficient for one who is to instruct others in virtue. For he who has received this charge, not only needs to be free from evil, for evil is, in the eyes of most of those under his care, most disgraceful, but also to be eminent in good, according to the command, “Depart from evil and do good.” 31 And he must not only wipe out the traces of vice from his soul, but also inscribe better ones, so as to outstrip men further in virtue than he is superior to them in dignity. He should know no limits in goodness or spiritual progress, and should dwell upon the loss of what is still beyond him, rather than the gain of what he has attained, and consider that which is beneath his feet a step to that which comes next: and not think it a great gain to excel ordinary people, but a loss to fall short of what we ought to be: and to measure his success by the commandment and not by his neighbours, whether they be evil, or to some extent proficient in virtue: and to weigh virtue in no small scales, inasmuch as it is due to the Most High, “from Whom are all things, and to Whom are all things.” 32

ΙΔ. Δεύτερον δὲ͵ εἰ καί τις ἁγνὸν ἑαυτὸν ἀπὸ πάσης ἁμαρτίας τηρήσειεν͵ ἢ ὡς μάλιστα͵ οὐκ οἶδα μὲν͵ εἰ καὶ τοῦτο αὔταρκες τῷ μέλλοντι τοὺς ἄλλους παιδεύειν πρὸς ἀρετήν· οὐ γὰρ μὴ κα κὸν εἶναι δεῖ μόνον τὸν τοῦτο πεπιστευμένον͵ τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ καὶ τῶν ὑπὸ χεῖρα τοῖς πολλοῖς αἴσχιστον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ ἀγαθῷ διαφέροντα͵ κατὰ τὴν͵ ἐκκλίνειν ἀπὸ κακοῦ͵ καὶ ποιεῖν ἀγαθὸν͵ κελεύουσαν ἐντολήν· οὐδὲ τοὺς φαύλους ἐξαλεῖψαι τῆς ψυχῆς τύπους μό νον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἀμείνους ἐγγράψασθαι͵ ὡς πλέον κατ΄ ἀρετὴν προέχειν͵ ἢ ὁπόσον περίεστιν ἀξιώματι· καὶ μηδὲν μέτρον εἰδέναι τοῦ καλοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀναβά σεως͵ μηδὲ κέρδος μᾶλλον τὸ κρατηθὲν ἢ ζημίαν τὸ διαφεῦγον· ἀλλ΄ ἐπίβασιν ἀεὶ ποιεῖσθαι τὸ ποσὶ τοῦ ἑξῆς· καὶ μὴ μέγα νομίζειν ἂν τῶν πολλῶν δια φέρωμεν͵ ἀλλὰ ζημίαν ἂν τῆς ἀξίας λειπώμεθα· καὶ τῇ ἐντολῇ παραμετρεῖν͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῖς πέλας͵ τὸ κατορθούμενον͵ ἄν τε ὦσι κακοὶ͵ ἄν τε ἀρετῆς ἐπὶ ποσὸν ἥκοντες· καὶ μὴ μικροῖς σταθμοῖς ταλαν τεύειν τὴν ἀρετὴν͵ τῷ μεγίστῳ͵ καὶ παρ΄ οὗ τὰ πάντα͵ καὶ εἰς ὃν τὰ πάντα χρεωστουμένην.





Be Sensitive and Responsive to




15. Nor must he suppose that the same things are suitable to all, just as all have not the same stature, nor are the features of the face, nor the nature of animals, nor the qualities of soil, nor the beauty and size of the stars, in all cases the same: but he must consider base conduct a fault in a private individual, and deserving of chastisement under the hard rule of the law; while in the case of a ruler or leader it is a fault not to attain to the highest possible excellence, and always make progress in goodness, if indeed he is, by his high degree of virtue, to draw his people to an ordinary degree, not by the force of authority, but by the influence of persuasion. For what is involuntary apart from its being the result of oppression, is neither meritorious nor durable. For what is forced, like a plant 33 violently drawn aside by our hands, when set free, returns to what it was before, but that which is the result of choice is both most legitimate and enduring, for it is preserved by the bond of good will. And so our law and our lawgiver enjoin upon us most strictly that we should “tend the flock not by constraint but willingly.” 34

ΙΕ. Μηδὲ τὰ αὐτὰ πᾶσιν ἁρμόζειν οἴεσθαι͵ ὥσπερ οὐδὲ ἡλικίαι πᾶσιν αἱ αὐταὶ͵ οὐδὲ προσώπων χα ρακτῆρες͵ οὐδὲ ζώων φύσεις͵ οὐδὲ γῆς ποιότη τες͵ οὐδὲ κάλλη τε καὶ μεγέθη λαμπτήρων· ἀλλ΄ ἡγεῖσθαι ἰδιώτου μὲν εἶναι κακίαν τὸ φαῦλα πράσ σειν͵ καὶ ὅσα κολάσεως ἄξια͵ ὧν καὶ ὁ νόμος βαρὺς δεσπότης· ἄρχοντος δὲ ἢ προεστῶτος τὸ μὴ ὡς ἄριστον εἶναι͵ καὶ ἀεὶ τῷ καλῷ προβαίνοντα͵ εἴπερ μέλλοι τῷ περιόντι τῆς ἀρετῆς ἕλξειν τοὺς πολλοὺς εἰς τὸ μέτριον͵ καὶ μὴ βίᾳ κατάρξειν͵ ἀλλὰ πειθοῖ προσάξεσθαι. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀκούσιον͵ πρὸς τὸ τυραννικὸν εἶναι͵ καὶ οὐκ ἐπαινετὸν͵ οὐδὲ μόνιμον· φιλεῖ γὰρ τὸ βιασθὲν͵ ὥσπερ φυτὸν βίᾳ 35.425 τὸν βίᾳ χερσὶ μετασπώμενον͵ εἰς ἑαυτὸ πάλιν ἀφε θὲν ἀνατρέχειν· τὸ δ΄ ἐκ προαιρέσεως ἐννομώτατόν τε ἅμα καὶ ἀσφαλέστατον͵ εὐνοίας δεσμῷ τηρούμενον. Ὅθεν δὴ καὶ μάλιστα ποιμαίνειν τὸ ποίμνιον ἑκου σίως͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς͵ ὁ ἡμέτερος διακελεύε ται νόμος καὶ νομοθέτης.





16. But granted that a man is free from vice, and has reached the greatest heights of virtue: I do not see what knowledge or power would justify him in venturing upon this office. Ι. Ἀλλ΄ ἔστω τις μήτε κακὸς͵ καὶ ἀρετῆς ἥκων εἰς τὸ ἀκρότατον· οὐχ ὁρῶ͵ τίνα λαβὼν ἐπιστήμην͵ ἢ ποίᾳ δυνάμει πιστεύσας͵ ταύτην ἂν θαῤῥοίη τὴν προστασίαν·
For the guiding of man, the most variable and manifold of creatures, seems to me in very deed to be the art of arts 35 and science of sciences. τῷ ὄντι γὰρ αὕτη μοι φαίνεται τέχνη τις εἶναι τεχνῶν͵ καὶ ἐπιστήμη ἐπιστημῶν͵ ἄνθρωπον ἄγειν͵ τὸ πολυτροπώτατον ζῶον καὶ ποικι λώτατον.

Any one may recognize this, by comparing the work of the physician of souls with the treatment of the body; and noticing that, laborious as the latter is, ours is more laborious, and of more consequence, from the nature of its subject matter, the power of its science, and the object of its exercise. The one labours about bodies, and perishable failing matter, which absolutely must be dissolved and undergo its fate, 36 even if upon this occasion by the aid of art it can surmount the disturbance within itself, being dissolved by disease or time in submission to the law of nature, since it cannot rise above its own limitations.

Γνοίη δ΄ ἄν τις τῇ τῶν σωμάτων θεραπείᾳ͵ τὴν τῶν ψυχῶν ἰατρείαν ἀντεξετάσας· καὶ ὅσῳ μὲν ἐργώδης ἐκείνη καταμαθὼν͵ ὅσῳ δὲ ἡ καθ΄ ἡμᾶς ἐργωδεστέρα προσεξετάσας͵ καὶ τῇ φύσει τῆς ὕλης͵ καὶ τῇ δυνάμει τῆς ἐπιστήμης͵ καὶ τῷ τέλει τῆς ἐν εργείας τιμιωτέρα. Ἡ μὲν γὰρ περὶ σώματα πονεῖται͵ καὶ τὴν ἐπίκηρον ὕλην καὶ κάτω ῥέουσαν͵ πάντως λυθησομένην καὶ πεισομένην τὸ ἑαυτῆς͵ κἂν νῦν τῇ συμμαχίᾳ τῆς τέχνης κατακρατήσῃ τῆς ἐν αὐτῇ στάσεως· ἢ γὰρ νόσος ἢ χρόνος ἔλυσεν͵ εἴξασαν τῇ φύσει͵ καὶ τοὺς ἰδίους ὅρους οὐχ ὑπερ βαίνουσαν.





17. The other is concerned with the soul, which comes from God and is divine, and partakes of the heavenly nobility, and presses on to it, even if it be bound to an inferior nature. Perhaps indeed there are other reasons also for this, which only God, Who bound them together, and those who are instructed by God in such mysteries, can know, but as far as I, and men like myself can perceive, there are two: one, that it may inherit the glory above by means of a struggle and wrestling 37 with things below, being tried as gold in the fire 38 by things here, and gain the objects of our hope as a prize of virtue, and not merely as the gift of God. This, indeed, was the will of Supreme Goodness, to make the good even our own, not only because sown in our nature, but because cultivated by our own choice, and by the motions of our will, 39 free to act in either direction. The second reason is, that it may draw to itself and raise to heaven the lower nature, by gradually freeing it from its grossness, in order that the soul may be to the body what God is to the soul, itself leading on the matter which ministers to it, and uniting it, as its fellow-servant, to God.

ΙΖ. Τῇ δὲ περὶ ψυχὴν ἡ σπουδὴ͵ τὴν ἐκ Θεοῦ καὶ θείαν͵ καὶ τῆς ἄνωθεν εὐγενείας μετέχουσαν͵ καὶ πρὸς ἐκείνην ἐπειγομένην͵ εἰ καὶ τῷ χείρονι συνεδέθη· τάχα μὲν καὶ δι΄ ἄλλας αἰτίας͵ ἃς μόνος οἶδεν ὁ συνδήσας Θεὸς͵ καὶ εἴ τις ἐκ Θεοῦ τὰ τοι αῦτα ἐσοφίσθη μυστήρια· ὅσον δ΄ οὖν ἐμὲ γινώσκειν καὶ τοὺς κατ΄ ἐμὲ͵ δυοῖν ἕνεκεν· ἑνὸς μὲν͵ ἵνα δι΄ ἀγῶνος καὶ πάλης͵ τῆς πρὸς τὰ κάτω͵ τῆς ἄνω δό ξης κληρονομήσειεν͵ ὥσπερ χρυσὸς πυρὶ͵ τοῖς τῇδε βασανισθεῖσα͵ καὶ ἀρετῆς ἆθλον͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ Θεοῦ δῶρον μόνον ἔχῃ τὰ ἐλπιζόμενα· καὶ τοῦτο δὲ ἦν ἄρα τῆς ἄκρας ἀγαθότητος͵ ποιῆσαι τὸ ἀγαθὸν 35.428 καὶ ἡμέτερον͵ οὐ φύσει μόνον κατασπειρόμενον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ προαιρέσει γεωργούμενον͵ καὶ τοῖς ἐπ΄ ἄμφω τοῦ αὐτεξουσίου κινήμασιν· ἑτέρου δὲ ὡς ἂν καὶ τὸ χεῖρον ἑλκύσειε πρὸς ἑαυτὴν καὶ ἄνω θείη͵ λύσασα κατὰ μικρὸν τῆς παχύτητος· ἵν΄͵ ὅπερ ἐστὶ Θεὸς ψυχῇ͵ τοῦτο ψυχὴ σώματι γένηται παιδαγωγή σασα δι΄ ἑαυτῆς τὴν ὑπηρέτιν ὕλην͵ καὶ οἰκειώ σασα Θεῷ τὸ ὁμόδουλον.





18. Place and time and age and season and the like are the subjects of a physician’s scrutiny; he will prescribe medicines and diet, and guard against things injurious, that the desires of the sick may not be a hindrance to his art. Sometimes, and in certain cases, he will make use of the cautery or the knife or the severer remedies; but none of these, laborious and hard as they may seem, is so difficult as the diagnosis and cure of our habits, passions, lives, wills, and whatever else is within us, by banishing from our compound nature everything brutal and fierce, and introducing and establishing in their stead what is gentle and dear to God, and arbitrating fairly between soul and body; not allowing the superior to be overpowered by the inferior, which would be the greatest injustice; but subjecting to the ruling and leading power that which naturally takes the second place: as indeed the divine law enjoins, which is most excellently imposed on His whole creation, whether visible or beyond our ken.

ΙΗ. Χώρας͵ καὶ καιροὺς͵ καὶ ἡλικίας͵ καὶ ὥρας͵ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα ὁ ἰατρὸς ἐπισκέψεται· φαρμακεύσει τε καὶ διαιτήσει͵ καὶ τηρήσει τὰ βλαβερὰ͵ ὡς ἂν μὴ ἀντιβῆναι τῇ τέχνῃ τὰς τῆς ἀῤῥωστίας ἐπιθυμίας· καί που καὶ καύσεσι͵ καὶ τομαῖς͵ καὶ τοῖς αὐστηροτέροις τῆς θεραπείας͵ ἔστιν ὅτε καὶ ἐφ΄ ὧν χρήσεται· ὧν οὔπω τοσοῦτον οὐδὲν͵ κἂν ἐπίπονα σφόδρα καὶ χαλεπὰ φαίνηται͵ ὅσον ἤθη͵ καὶ πάθη͵ καὶ βίους͵ καὶ προαιρέσεις͵ καὶ εἴ τι ἄλλο τοιοῦτο τῶν ἐν ἡμῖν͵ κατοπτεῦσαί τε καὶ ἰατρεῦσαι͵ καὶ πᾶν ὅσον θηριῶδες καὶ ἄγριον ἐξορίσαντας τῆς συζυγίας τῆς ἡμετέρας͵ πᾶν ὅσον ἥμερον καὶ Θεῷ φίλον ἀντεισ αγαγεῖν τε καὶ βεβαιώσασθαι͵ καὶ βραβεῦσαι δι καίως ψυχῇ τε καὶ σώματι· μὴ τῷ χείρονι τὸ κρεῖτ τον δυναστεύεσθαι συγχωρήσαντας͵ ἥπερ ἀδικιῶν ἡ μεγίστη· τῷ δὲ ἄρχοντι καὶ ἡγεμονικῷ τὸ τῇ φύσει δεύτερον ὑποτάξαντας· ὥσπερ δὴ νόμος θεῖος͵ καὶ κάλλιστα ἔχων ἐπὶ πάσης αὐτοῦ τῆς κτίσεως͵ ὅση τε ὁρατὴ͵ καὶ ὅση ὑπὲρ τὴν αἴσθησιν.





19. This further point does not escape me, that the nature of all these objects of the watch-fulness of the physician remains the same, and does not evolve out of itself any crafty opposition, or contrivance hostile to the appliances of his art, nay, it is rather the treatment which modifies its subject matter, 40 except where some slight insubordination occurs on the part of the patient, which it is not difficult to prevent or restrain. But in our case, human prudence and selfishness, and the want of training and inclination to yield ready submission are a very great obstacle to advance in virtue, amounting almost to an armed resistance to those who are wishful to help us. And the very eagerness with which we should lay bare our sickness to oar spiritual physicians, we employ in avoiding this treatment, 41 and shew our bravery by struggling against what is for our own interest, our skill in shunning what is for our health.

ΙΘ. Σκοπῶ δὲ κἀκεῖνο͵ ὅτι ἐκείνων μὲν ἕκαστον ὧν ἀπηριθμησάμην ὡς τῷ θεραπευτῇ τηρου μένων ὅπως ἔχει φύσεως͵ οὕτω μένει καὶ οὐδὲν ἀντιτεχνᾶται παρ΄ ἑαυτοῦ πανούργως͵ οὐδ΄ ἀντισοφίζεται τοῖς παρὰ τῆς τέχνης προσαγομέ νοις· ἀλλὰ καὶ περιΐστησι μᾶλλον τὴν ὕλην ἡ ἰατρεία· πλὴν εἴ που βραχεῖά τις παρεμπέσοι τοῦ κάμ νοντος ἀταξία͵ ἣν καὶ φυλάξαι καὶ ἀνακόψαι οὐ χαλε πόν. Ἡμῖν δὲ ἡ σύνεσις καὶ τὸ φίλαυτον͵ καὶ τὸ νικᾶσθαι ῥᾳδίως μήτ΄ εἰδέναι͵ μήτ΄ ἀνέχεσθαι͵ μέ γιστον πρὸς ἀρετήν ἐστιν ἐμπόδιον͵ καὶ οἷόν τις παρά 35.429 ταξις κατὰ τῶν συμμαχούντων γίνεται· καὶ ὅσην εἰσφέ ρειν ἔδει σπουδὴν γυμνοῦν τὴν νόσον τοῖς θεραπεύου σι͵ τοσαύτην ὥστε τὴν ἰατρείαν φεύγειν εἰσφερό μεθα͵ καί ἐσμεν ἀνδρεῖοι καθ΄ ἑαυτῶν͵ καὶ κατὰ τῆς ὑγείας ἡμῶν ἐπιστήμονες.





20. For we either hide away our sin, cloaking it over in the depth of our soul, like some festering and malignant disease, as if by escaping the notice of men we could escape the mighty eye of God and justice. Or else we allege excuses in our sins, 42 by devising pleas in defence of our falls, or tightly closing our ears, like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ears, we are obstinate in refusing to hear the voice of the charmer, and be treated with the medicines of wisdom? by which spiritual sickness is healed. Or, lastly, those of us who are most daring and self-willed shamelessly brazen out our sin before those who would heal it, marching with bared head, as the saying is, into all kinds of transgression. O what madness, if there be no term more fitting for this state of mind! Those whom we ought to love as our benefactors we keep off, as if they were our enemies, hating those who reprove in the gates, and abhorring the righteous word; 43 and we think that we shall succeed in the war that we are waging against those who are well disposed to us by doing ourselves all the harm we can, like men who imagine they are consuming the flesh of others when they are really fastening upon their own.

Κ. ῍Η γὰρ δουλοπρεπῶς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐκλέψαμεν͵ ὥσπερ τι πάθος ὕπουλον καὶ κακόηθες ἐν τῷ βάθει τῆς ψυχῆς συγκαλύπτοντες͵ ὡς καὶ τὸν μέγαν λήσοντες ὀφθαλμὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τῆς δίκης͵ ἂν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους λάθωμεν· ἢ προφασιζόμεθα προφά σεις ἐν ἁμαρτίαις͵ λόγους συνηγόρους τοῖς πά θεσιν ἀνευρίσκοντες· ἢ τὰς ἀκοὰς ἀποφράξαντες ἀσπί δος κωφῆς καὶ τὰ ὦτα βυούσης τρόπον͵ μὴ ἀκοῦσαι φωνῆς ἐπᾳδόντων φιλονεικοῦμεν͵ μηδὲ φαρμακευθῆ ναι σοφίας φαρμάκοις͵ οἷς ἀῤῥωστία ψυχῆς θε ραπεύεται· ἢ τὸ τελευταῖον͵ οἵ γε τολμηρότεροι ἡμῶν καὶ γενναιότεροι͵ καὶ φανερῶς ἀναισχυν τοῦμεν πρός τε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν καὶ τοὺς ταύτης θεραπευτὰς͵ γυμνῇ τῇ κεφαλῇ͵ τὸ δὴ λεγόμενον͵ χω ροῦντες πρὸς πᾶσαν παρανομίαν· ὢ τῆς παραπλη ξίας͵ ἢ εἴ τι ἄλλο τῷ τοιούτῳ πάθει κυριώτερον ὄνο μα καὶ οὓς ἀγαπᾷν ὡς εὐεργέτας ἐχρῆν͵ τούτους ὡς ἐχθροὺς ἀμυνόμεθα͵ μισοῦντες ἐν πύλαις ἐλέγχοντας͵ καὶ λόγον ὅσιον βδελυσσόμενοι· καὶ οἰόμεθα μᾶλλον πολεμήσειν τοὺς ἡμῖν εὔνους͵ ἂν ὅτι μάλιστα ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς κακῶς δράσωμεν͵ ὥσπερ οἱ τῶν ἰδίων σαρκῶν ἁπτόμενοι τὰς τῶν πέλας δαπανᾷν νο μίζοντες.





21. For these reasons I allege that our office as physicians far exceeds in toilsomeness, and consequently in worth, that which is confined to the body; and further, because the latter is mainly concerned with the surface, and only in a slight degree investigates the causes which are deeply hidden. But the whole of our treatment and exertion is concerned with the hidden man of the heart, 44 and our warfare is directed against that adversary and foe within us, who uses ourselves as his weapons against ourselves, and, most fearful of all, hands us over to the death of sin. In opposition then, to these foes we are in need of great and perfect faith, and of still greater co-operation on the part of God, and, as I am persuaded, of no slight countermanoeuvring on our own part, which mast manifest itself both in word and deed, if ourselves, the most precious possession we have, are to be duly tended and cleansed and made as deserving as possible.

ΚΑ. Ταῦτά ἐστιν͵ οἷς ἐγὼ τὴν καθ΄ ἡμᾶς ἰατρικὴν τῆς περὶ τὰ σώματα ἐργωδεστέραν τίθεμαι μα κρῷ͵ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τιμιωτέραν· καὶ ὅτι ἐκείνῃ μὲν͵ ὀλίγα τῶν ἐν τῷ βάθει κατοπτευούσῃ͵ περὶ τὸ φαινό μενον ἡ πλείων τῆς πραγματείας· ἡμῖν δὲ περὶ τὸν κρυπτὸν τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπον ἡ πᾶσα θερα πεία τε καὶ σπουδὴ͵ καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἔνδοθεν ἡμῖν ἀντιπολεμοῦντα καὶ ἀντιπαλαίοντα ἡ μάχη͵ ὃς ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς ὅπλοις καθ΄ ἡμῶν χρώμενος͵ τὸ δεινότατον͵ τῷ τῆς ἁμαρτίας θανάτῳ δίδωσι. Πρὸς οὖν ταῦτα πολλῆς μὲν καὶ παντελοῦς τῆς πίστεως͵ μείζο νος δὲ τῆς παρὰ Θεοῦ συνεργίας͵ οὐκ ὀλίγης δὲ τῆς ἡμετέρας ἀντιτεχνήσεως (ὥς γε ἐμαυτὸν πεί 35.432 θω)͵ χρεία͵ τῆς καὶ λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ θεωρουμένης͵ εἰ δεῖ καλῶς ἡμῖν θεραπεύεσθαι καὶ ἀπο καθαίρεσθαι͵ καὶ ὡς πλείστου ἀξίας εἶναι͵ τὸ τιμιώ τατον ὧν ἔχομεν͵ τὰς ψυχάς.





Theosis is the Goal of Spiritual




22. To turn however to the ends in view in each of these forms of healing, for this point is still left to be considered, the one preserves, if it already exists, the health and good habit of the flesh, or if absent, recalls it; though it is not yet clear whether or not these will be for the advantage of those who possess them, since their opposites very often confer a greater benefit on those who have them, just as poverty and wealth, renown or disgrace, a low or brilliant position, and all other circumstances, which are naturally indifferent, and do not incline in one direction more than in another, produce a good or bad effect according to the will of, and the manner in which they are used by the persons who experience them. But the scope of our art is to provide the soul with wings, to rescue it from the world and give it to God, and to watch over that which is in His image, 45 if it abides, to take it by the hand, if it is in danger, or restore it, if ruined, to make Christ to dwell in the heart 46 by the Spirit: and, in short, to deify, and bestow heavenly bliss upon, one who belongs to the heavenly host.

ΚΒ. Τά γε μὴν ἀμφοτέρων τῶν θεραπειῶν τέλη͵ τοῦτο γὰρ ἡμῖν εἰς τὴν ἐξέτασιν ἔτι λείπεται͵ τῇ μὲν ὑγίειαν͵ ἢ εὐεξίαν σαρκὸς͵ ἢ οὖσαν φυλάξαι͵ ἢ ἀπελθοῦσαν ἀνακαλέσασθαι͵ ὧν οὔπω δῆλον͵ εἴ τι συνοίσει τοῖς κεκτημένοις· ἐπεὶ καὶ τὰ ἐναντία πολλάκις πλείω τοὺς ἔχοντας ὤνησεν͵ ὥσπερ πενίαι τε καὶ πλοῦτοι͵ δόξαι τε καὶ ἀδοξίαι͵ ταπεινότητες καὶ λαμπρότητες͵ καὶ ὅσα ἐν μέσῳ κείμενα κατὰ τὴν φύ σιν͵ καὶ οὐδὲν μᾶλλον τῇδε ἢ τῇδε νεύοντα͵ τῇ χρήσει καὶ τῇ προαιρέσει τῶν κεκτημένων τὸ βέλτιον ἢ τὸ χεῖρον λαμβάνει· τῇ δὲ τὸ προκείμενον πτερῶσαι ψυχὴν͵ ἁρπάσαι κόσμου͵ καὶ δοῦναι Θεῷ͵ καὶ τὸ κατ΄ εἰκόνα ἢ μένον τηρῆσαι͵ ἢ κινδυνεῦον χειραγωγῆσαι͵ ἢ διαῤῥυὲν ἀνασώσασθαι͵ εἰσοικί σαι τε τὸν Χριστὸν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις διὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος· καὶ τὸ κεφάλαιον͵ Θεὸν ποιῆσαι͵ καὶ τῆς ἄνω μακαριότητος͵ τὸν τῆς ἄνω συντάξεως.





23. This is the wish of our schoolmaster 47 the law, of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end 48 of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, 49 of the assumed flesh, 50 of the novel union between God and man, one consisting 51 of two, and both in one. This is why God was united 52 to the flesh by means of the soul, 53 and natures so separate were knit together by the affinity to each of the element which mediated between them: so all became one for the sake of all, and for the sake of one, our progenitor, the soul because of the soul which was disobedient, the flesh because of the flesh which co-operated with it and shared in its condemnation, Christ, Who was superior to, and beyond the reach of, sin, because of Adam, who became subject to sin.

ΚΓ. Τοῦτο ἡμῖν ὁ παιδαγωγὸς βούλεται νόμος· τοῦ το οἱ μέσοι Χριστοῦ καὶ νόμου προφῆται· τοῦτο ὁ τοῦ πνευματικοῦ νόμου τελειωτὴς καὶ τὸ τέλος Χρι στός· τοῦτο ἡ κενωθεῖσα θεότης· τοῦτο ἡ προσληφθεῖσα σάρξ· τοῦτο ἡ καινὴ μίξις͵ Θεὸς καὶ ἄνθρωπος͵ ἓν ἐξ ἀμφοῖν͵ καὶ δι΄ ἐνὸς ἀμφότερα. Διὰ τοῦτο Θεὸς σαρκὶ διὰ μέσης ψυχῆς ἀνεκρά 35.433 θη͵ καὶ συνεδέθη τὰ διεστῶτα τῇ πρὸς ἄμφω τοῦ μεσιτεύοντος οἰκειότητι· καὶ πάντα ὑπὲρ πάντων ἦλθεν εἰς ἓν͵ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἑνὸς τοῦ προπάτορος· ἡ ψυχὴ διὰ τὴν παρακούσασαν͵ ἡ σὰρξ διὰ τὴν ὑπουργήσασαν καὶ συγκατακριθεῖσαν· ἡ μὲν ψυχὴν͵ ἡ δὲ σάρκα· ὁ Χριστὸς διὰ τὸν Ἀδὰμ τὸν γενόμενον ὑπὸ τὴν ἁμαρ τίαν͵ ὁ κρείττων ἁμαρτίας καὶ ὑψηλότερος.





All Biblical Salvation History is for

Our Healing



24. This is why the new was substituted for the old, 54 why He Who suffered was for suffering recalled to life, why each property of His, Who was above us, was interchanged with each of ours, why the new mystery took place of the dispensation, due to loving kindness which deals with him who fell through disobedience. This is the reason for the generation and the virgin, for the manger and Bethlehem; the generation on behalf of the creation, 55 the virgin on behalf of the woman, 56 Bethlehem 57 because of Eden, the manger because of the garden, small and visible things on behalf of great and hidden things. This is why the angels 58 glorified first the heavenly, then the earthly, 59 why the shepherds saw the glory over the Lamb and the Shepherd, why the star led the Magi to worship and offer gifts, 60 in order that idolatry might be destroyed. This is why Jesus was baptized, 61 and received testimony from above, and fasted, 62 and was tempted, and overcame him who had overcome. This is why devils were cast out, 63 and diseases healed, and the mighty preaching was entrusted to, and successfully proclaimed by men of low estate.

ΚΔ. Διὰ τοῦτο ἀντεισήχθη τῷ παλαιῷ τὸ νέον· καὶ διὰ πάθους ὁ παθὼν ἀνεκλήθη͵ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἑκάστου τῶν ἡμετέρων ἕκαστον τοῦ ὑπὲρ ἡμᾶς ἀντεδόθη· καὶ γέγονε καινὸν μυστήριον ἡ περὶ τὸν πεσόντα δι΄ ἀπεί θειαν ἐκ φιλανθρωπίας οἰκονομία. Διὰ τοῦτο γέννη σις καὶ Παρθένος· διὰ τοῦτο φάτνη καὶ Βηθλεέμ· ἡ γέννησις ὑπὲρ τῆς πλάσεως· ἡ Παρθένος ὑπὲρ τῆς γυ ναικός· ἡ Βηθλεὲμ διὰ τὴν Ἐδέμ· ἡ φάτνη διὰ τὸν παράδεισον· τὰ μικρὰ καὶ φαινόμενα ὑπὲρ τῶν μεγά λων καὶ κρυπτομένων. Διὰ τοῦτο ἄγγελοι δοξά ζοντες τὸν οὐράνιον͵ εἶτα ἐπίγειον· καὶ ποιμένες δό ξαν ὁρῶντες ἐπὶ τῷ ἀμνῷ καὶ ποιμένι· καὶ ἀστὴρ ἠγούμενος͵ καὶ μάγοι προσπίπτοντες καὶ δωροφοροῦν τες͵ ἵν΄ εἰδωλολατρεία καταλυθῇ. Διὰ τοῦτο Ἰησοῦς βαπτιζόμενος͵ καὶ ἄνωθεν μαρτυρούμενος͵ καὶ νη στεύων͵ καὶ πειραζόμενος͵ καὶ νικῶν τὸν νικήσαν τα. Διὰ τοῦτο δαίμονες ἐλαυνόμενοι͵ καὶ νόσοι θε ραπευόμεναι͵ καὶ τὸ μέγα κήρυγμα μικροῖς ἐγχειρι ζόμενον καὶ κατορθούμενον.





25. This is why the heathen rage and the peoples imagine vain things; 64 why tree 65 is set over against tree, 66 hands against hand, the one stretched out in self indulgence, 67 the others in generosity; the one unrestrained, the others fixed by nails, 68 the one expelling Adam, the other reconciling the ends of the earth. This is the reason of the lifting up to atone for the fall, and of the gall for the tasting, and of the thorny crown for the dominion of evil, and of death for death, and of darkness for the sake of light, and of burial for the return to the ground, and of resurrection for the sake of resurrection. 69 All these are a training from God for us, and a healing for our weakness, restoring the old Adam to the place whence he fell, and conducting us to the tree of life, 70 from which the tree of knowledge estranged us, when partaken of unseasonably, and improperly.

ΚΕ. Διὰ τοῦτο ἔθνη φρυασσόμενα͵ καὶ λαοὶ μελε τῶντες κενά· διὰ τοῦτο ξύλον κατὰ τοῦ ξύλου͵ καὶ κατὰ τῆς χειρὸς χεῖρες͵ τῆς ἀκρατῶς ἐκταθείσης αἱ γενναίως ταθεῖσαι· τῆς ἀνειμένης αἱ τοῖς ἥλοις δεθεῖσαι· τῆς ἐκβαλούσης Ἀδὰμ αἱ τὰ πέρατα οἰκειούμεναι. Διὰ τοῦτο ὕψος κατὰ τοῦ πτώμα τος· καὶ χολὴ κατὰ τῆς γεύσεως͵ καὶ στέφανος ἀκάνθινος κατὰ τοῦ πονηροῦ κράτους͵ καὶ θάνα τος κατὰ τοῦ θανάτου͵ καὶ σκότος ὑπὲρ τοῦ φωτὸς͵ 35.436 καὶ ταφὴ κατὰ τῆς εἰς γῆν ἀποστροφῆς͵ καὶ ἀνάστασις ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀναστάσεως. Ταῦτα πάντα παιδαγωγία τις ἦν περὶ ἡμᾶς τοῦ Θεοῦ͵ καὶ τῆς ἀσθενείας ἰατρεία τῆς ἡμετέρας͵ τὸν παλαιὸν Ἀδὰμ ὅθεν ἐξέπεσεν ἐπ ανάγουσα͵ καὶ τῷ ξύλῳ τῆς ζωῆς προσάγουσα͵ οὗ τὸ ξύλον ἡμᾶς τῆς γνώσεως͵ οὐ κατὰ καιρὸν͵ οὐδ΄ ἐπι τηδείως μεταληφθὲν͵ ἠλλοτρίωσε.





On Being a Spiritual




26. Of this healing we, who are set over others, are the ministers and fellow-labourers; 71 for whom it is a great thing to recognise and heal their own passions and sicknesses: or rather, not really a great thing, only the viciousness of most of those who belong to this order has made me say so: but a much greater thing is the power to heal and skilfully cleanse those of others, to the advantage both of those who are in want of healing and of those whose charge it is to heal.

Κ. Ταύτης ἡμεῖς τῆς θεραπείας ὑπηρέται καὶ συνεργοὶ͵ ὅσοι τῶν ἄλλων προκαθεζόμεθα· οἷς μέγα μὲν τὸ τὰ ἴδια πάθη καὶ ἀῤῥωστήματα καὶ γινώσκειν καὶ θεραπεύειν· μᾶλλον δὲ οὔπω μέγα͵ πλὴν τοῦτο λέγειν ἡμᾶς ἡ τῶν πολλῶν κακία πεποίηκε͵ τῶν ἐπὶ ταύτης ὄντων τῆς τάξεως· πολλῷ δὲ μεῖζον τὸ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἰᾶσθαι δύνασθαι καὶ ἀνακαθαίρειν ἐπιστημό νως͵ καὶ ὡς ἂν ἀμφοτέροις λυσιτελοίη͵ τοῖς τε τῆς θεραπείας χρῄζουσι καὶ τοῖς ἰατρεύειν πεπιστευ μένοις.





27. Again, the healers of our bodies will have their labours and vigils and cares, of which we are aware; and will reap a harvest of pain for themselves from the distresses of others, as one of their wise men 72 said; and will provide for the use of those who need them, both the results of their own labours and investigations, and what they have been able to borrow from others: and they consider none, even of the minutest details, which they discover, or which elude their search, as having other than an important influence upon health or danger. And what is the object of all this? That a man may live some days longer on the earth, though he is possibly not a good man, but one of the most depraved, for whom it had perhaps been better, because of his badness, to have died long ago, in order to be set free from vice, the most serious of sicknesses. But, suppose he is a good man, how long will he be able to live? Forever? Or what will he gain from life here, from which it is the greatest of blessings, if a man be sane and sensible, to seek to be set free?

ΚΖ. Εἶτα οἱ μὲν τῶν σωμάτων θεραπευταὶ πόνους τε καὶ ἀγρυπνίας καὶ φροντίδας͵ ἃς ἴσμεν͵ ἕξουσι· καὶ τὸ ἐπ΄ ἀλλοτρίαις συμφοραῖς ἰδίας καρ ποῦσθαι λύπας͵ ὡς ἔφη τις τῶν παρ΄ ἐκείνοις σοφῶν· καὶ τὰ μὲν αὐτοὶ μοχθοῦντες καὶ ἀνευ ρίσκοντες͵ τὰ δὲ παρ΄ ἄλλων ἐρανιζόμενοι καὶ συν εισφέροντες προσοίσουσι τοῖς δεομένοις· καὶ οὐ δὲν οὕτω μικρὸν αὐτοῖς ἢ εὑρεθὲν ἢ διαφυγὸν͵ οὐδὲ τῶν ἐλαχίστων͵ ὡς μὴ μέγα πρὸς τὴν τῆς ὑγιείας ῥοπὴν͵ ἢ τοῦ κινδύνου τοὐναντίον ὑποληφθῆναι· καὶ ταῦτα ὑπὲρ τίνος; ἵν΄ ἄνθρωπος ζήσῃ πλείους τὰς ἐπὶ γῆν ἡμέρας͵ καὶ οὗτος οὐδὲ τῶν ἐπιει κῶν ἴσως͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν μοχθηροτάτων͵ ᾧ τὸ πάλαι τεθνάναι ἴσως ἄμεινον ἦν͵ ὄντι κακῷ͵ ἵνα τοῦ μεγί στου τῶν ἀῤῥωστημάτων͵ τῆς κακίας͵ ἀπαλλαγῇ· εἰ δὲ καὶ τῶν καλῶν θείημεν͵ ἐπὶ πόσον βιωσο μένῳ; τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον; ἢ τί τῆς ἐνταῦθα κερδα νοῦντι ζωῆς͵ ἧς τὸ λυθῆναι ζητεῖν͵ τῶν καλῶν 35.437 τὸ πρῶτον καὶ ἀσφαλέστατον͵ καὶ ἀνδρὸς ὄντως ὑγιοῦς καὶ νοῦν ἔχοντος;





Different Diseases Require Different




28. But we, upon whose efforts is staked the salvation of a soul, a being blessed and immortal, and destined for undying chastisement or praise, for its vice or virtue,—what a struggle ought ours to be, and how great skill do we require to treat, or get men treated properly, and to change their life, and give up the clay to the spirit. For men and women, young and old, rich and poor, the sanguine and despondent, the sick and whole, rulers and ruled, the wise and ignorant, the cowardly and courageous, the wrathful and meek, the successful and failing, do not require the same instruction and encouragement.

ΚΗ. Ἡμῖν δὲ͵ οἷς τὸ κινδυνευόμενόν ἐστι σωτηρία ψυχῆς͵ τῆς μακαρίας τε καὶ ἀθανάτου͵ καὶ ἀθάνατα κολασθησομένης͵ ἢ ἐπαινεθησομένης͵ διὰ κακίαν ἢ ἀρετὴν͵ πόσον χρὴ δοκεῖν εἶναι τὸν ἀγῶνα͵ ἢ ὅσης δεῖν τῆς ἐπιστήμης ἰατρεῦσαι καλῶς͵ ἢ ἰατρευθῆναι͵ καὶ τὴν ζωὴν μεταθέσθαι͵ καὶ δοῦναι τὸν χοῦν τῷ πνεύματι; Οὐ γὰρ τῶν αὐτῶν οὔτε λόγων οὔτε ὁρμῶν͵ οὔτε τὸ θῆλυ τῷ ἄῤῥενι͵ οὔτε γήρᾳ νεότης͵ οὔτε πενίᾳ πλοῦτος͵ οὔτε εὐθυμῶν ἀθυμοῦντι͵ οὔτε ὁ κάμνων τῷ ὑγιαίνοντι͵ ἄρχοντές τε καὶ ἀρχό μενοι͵ σοφοί τε καὶ ἀμαθεῖς͵ δειλοί τε καὶ θρασεῖς͵ ὀργίλοι καὶ πρᾶοι͵ κατορθοῦντες καὶ πίπτον τες.





29. And if you examine more closely, how great is the distinction between the married and the unmarried, and among the latter between hermits and those who 73 live together in community, between those who are proficient and advanced in contemplation and those who barely hold on the straight course, between townsfolk again and rustics, between the simple and the designing, between men of business and men of leisure, between those who have met with reverses and those who are prosperous and ignorant of misfortune. For these classes differ sometimes more widely from each other in their desires and passion than in their physical characteristics; or, if you will, in the mixtures and blendings of the elements of which we are composed, and, therefore, to regulate them is no easy task.

ΚΘ. Κἂν ἔτι ἀκριβῶς ἐξετάσῃς͵ ὅσον τὸ μέσον τῶν ἐν συζυγίαις πρὸς τοὺς ἀγάμους͵ κἂν τούτοις πάλιν τῶν τῆς ἐρημίας πρὸς τοὺς κοινωνικοὺς καὶ μιγάδας· τῶν ἐξητασμένων καὶ διαβεβηκό των ἐν θεωρίᾳ πρὸς τοὺς ἁπλῶς κατευθύνοντας͵ ἀστικῶν τε αὖ καὶ τῶν ἐκ τῆς ἀγροικίας͵ ἀκεραιοτέ ρων τε καὶ πανουργοτέρων͵ τῶν ἐν πράγμασι πρὸς τοὺς ἡσυχάζοντας͵ τῶν μεταβολῇ πληγέντων πρὸς τοὺς εὐδρομοῦντας καὶ ἀμαθεῖς τοῦ χείρονος· τούτων γὰρ ἕκαστοι πλεῖον ἀλλήλων ἔστιν ὅτε ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ ταῖς ὁρμαῖς ἢ κατὰ τὰς τῶν σωμάτων ἰδέας διαφέροντες· εἰ δὲ βούλει͵ τὰς τῶν στοιχείων μίξεις καὶ κράσεις͵ ἐξ ὧν συνεστήκαμεν͵ οὐ ῥᾴστην ἔχουσι τὴν οἰκονομίαν.





30. As then the same medicine and the same food are not in every case administered to men’s bodies, but a difference is made according to their degree of health or infirmity; so also are souls treated with varying instruction and guidance. To this treatment witness is borne by those who have had experience of it. Some are led by doctrine, others trained by example; some need the spur, others the curb; some are sluggish and hard to rouse to the good, and must be stirred up by being smitten with the word; others are immoderately fervent in spirit, with impulses difficult to restrain, like thoroughbred colts, who run wide of the turning post, and to improve them the word must have a restraining and checking influence.

Λ. Ἀλλ΄ ὥσπερ τοῖς σώμασιν οὐ τὴν αὐτὴν φαρ μακείαν τε καὶ τροφὴν προσφέρονται͵ ἄλλοι δὲ ἄλ λην͵ ἢ εὐεκτοῦντες ἢ κάμνοντες͵ οὕτω καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς διαφόρῳ λόγῳ καὶ ἀγωγῇ θεραπεύονται. Μάρ τυρες δὲ τῆς θεραπείας͵ ὧν καὶ τὰ πάθη· τοὺς 35.440 μὲν ἄγει λόγος͵ οἱ δὲ ῥυθμίζονται παραδείγματι· οἱ μὲν δέονται κέντρων͵ οἱ δὲ χαλινοῦ. Οἱ μὲν γάρ εἰσι νωθεῖς͵ καὶ δυσκίνητοι πρὸς τὸ καλὸν͵ οὓς τῇ πληγῇ τοῦ λόγου διεγερτέον· οἱ δὲ θερμότεροι τοῦ με τρίου τῷ πνεύματι͵ καὶ δυσκάθεκτοι ταῖς ὁρμαῖς͵ καθάπερ πῶλοι γενναῖοι πόῤῥω τῆς νύσσης θέοντες͵ οὓς βελτίους ἂν ποιήσειεν ἄγχων καὶ ἀνακόπτων ὁ λόγος.





31. Some are benefited by praise, others by blame, both being applied in season; while if out of season, or unreasonable, they are injurious; some are set right by encouragement, others by rebuke; some, when taken to task in public, others, when privately corrected. For some are wont to despise private admonitions, but are recalled to their senses by the condemnation of a number of people, while others, who would grow reckless under reproof openly given, accept rebuke because it is in secret, and yield obedience in return for sympathy.

ΛΑ. Τοὺς μὲν ἔπαινος ὤνησε͵ τοὺς δὲ ψόγος͵ ἀμφό τερα μετὰ τοῦ καιροῦ· ἢ τοὐναντίον ἔβλαψεν ἔξω τοῦ καιροῦ καὶ τοῦ λόγου. Τοὺς μὲν παράκλησις κατορθοῖ͵ τοὺς δὲ ἐπιτίμησις· καὶ αὕτη͵ τοὺς μὲν ἐν τῷ κοινῷ διελεγχομένους͵ τοὺς δὲ κρύβδην νου θετουμένους. Φιλοῦσι γὰρ οἱ μὲν καταφρονεῖν τῶν ἰδίᾳ νουθετημάτων͵ πλήθους καταγνώσει σωφρο νιζόμενοι· οἱ δὲ πρὸς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῶν ἐλέγχων ἀναισχυντεῖν͵ τῷ τῆς ἐπιτιμήσεως μυστηρίῳ παιδα γωγούμενοι͵ καὶ ἀντιδιδόντες τῆς συμπαθείας τὴν εὐπείθειαν.





32. Upon some it is needful to keep a close watch, even in the minutest details, because if they think they are unperceived (as they would contrive to be), they are puffed up with the idea of their own wisdom: Of others it is better to take no notice, but seeing not to see, and hearing not to hear them, according to the proverb, that we may not drive them to despair, under the depressing influence of repeated reproofs, and at last to utter recklessness, when they have lost the sense of self-respect, the source of persuasiveness. 74 In some cases we must even be angry, without feeling angry, or treat them with a disdain we do not feel, or manifest despair, though we do not really despair of them, according to the needs of their nature. Others again we must treat with condescension 75 and lowliness, aiding them readily to conceive a hope of better things. Some it is often more advantageous to conquer—by others to be overcome, and to praise or deprecate, in one case wealth and power, in another poverty and failure.

ΛΒ. Τῶν μὲν πάντα τηρεῖν ἐπιμελῶς ἀναγκαῖον μέχρι καὶ τῶν μικροτάτων͵ ὅσους τὸ οἴεσθαι λανθά νειν (ἐπειδὴ τοῦτο τεχνάζουσιν) ὡς σοφωτέρους ἐφύσησε· τῶν δ΄ ἔστιν ἃ καὶ παρορᾷν ἄμεινον͵ ὥστε ὁρῶντας μὴ ὁρᾷν͵ καὶ ἀκούοντας μὴ ἀκούειν͵ κατὰ τὴν παροιμίαν͵ ἵνα μὴ πρὸς ἀπόνοιαν αὐ τοὺς ἐρεθίζωμεν͵ τῷ φιλοπόνῳ τῶν ἐλέγχων κατα βαπτίζοντες͵ καὶ τέλος πρὸς πάντα ποιήσωμεν τολμηροὺς͵ τὸ τῆς πειθοῦς φάρμακον τὴν αἰδῶ διαλύ σαντες. Καὶ μέντοι καὶ ὀργιστέον τισὶν͵ οὐκ ὀργιζο μένους· καὶ ὑπεροπτέον͵ οὐχ ὑπερορῶντας· καὶ ἀπογνωστέον͵ οὐκ ἀπογινώσκοντας͵ ὅσων τοῦτο ἡ φύσις ἐπιζητεῖ. Καὶ ἄλλους ἐπιεικείᾳ θερα πευτέον καὶ ταπεινότητι͵ καὶ τῷ συμπροθυμεῖσθαι δὴ περὶ τὰς χρηστοτέρας ἐλπίδας. Καὶ τοὺς μὲν νι 35.441 κᾷν͵ τῶν δὲ ἡττᾶσθαι πολλάκις λυσιτελέστερον· καὶ τῶν μὲν εὐπορίαν καὶ δυναστείαν͵ τῶν δὲ πενίαν ἢ δυσπραγίαν͵ ἢ ἐπαινεῖν ἢ ἀπεύχεσθαι.





Adapt the Remedy

to the Illness



33. For our treatment does not correspond with virtue and vice, one of which is most excellent and beneficial at all times and in all cases, and the other most evil and harmful; and, instead of one and the same of our medicines invariably proving either most wholesome or most dangerous in the same cases—be it severity or gentleness, or any of the others which we have enumerated—in some cases it proves good and useful, in others again it has the contrary effect, according, I suppose, as time and circumstance and the disposition of the patient admit. Now to set before you the distinction between all these things, and give you a perfectly exact view of them, so that you may in brief comprehend the medical art, is quite impossible, even for one in the highest degree qualified by care and skill: but actual experience and practice are requisite to form 76 a medical system and a medical man.

ΛΓ. Οὐ γὰρ ὥσπερ ἐπὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἔχει καὶ τῆς κακίας͵ τὴν μὲν καλλίστην εἶναι καὶ ὠφελιμωτάτην ἀεὶ καὶ πᾶσι͵ τὴν δὲ χειρίστην τε καὶ βλαβερωτάτην· οὕτω καὶ τῆς φαρμακείας τῆς ἡμετέρας͵ ἕν τι καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ὑγιεινότατον͵ ἢ ἐπισφαλέστατον ἀεὶ καὶ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἀποδέδεικται· οἷον τὸ αὐστηρὸν͵ ἢ τὸ πρᾶον͵ ἢ τῶν ἄλλων ὧν ἀπηριθμησάμην ἕκαστον. Ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν τοῦτο καλὸν καὶ χρήσιμον͵ τοῖς δὲ τοὐναντίον πάλιν͵ ὅπως ἂν͵ οἶμαι͵ συμπί πτωσιν οἵ τε καιροὶ καὶ τὰ πράγματα͵ καὶ ὁ τῶν θεραπευομένων ἐπιδέχηται τρόπος. Ἃ πάντα μὲν διελέσθαι λόγῳ͵ καὶ συνιδεῖν ἐπὶ τὸ ἀκριβέστα τον͵ ὥστε καὶ κεφαλαίῳ τὴν θεραπείαν πε ριλαβεῖν ἀμήχανον͵ κἂν ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἐξίκηταί τις ἐπιμελείας τε καὶ συνέσεως· ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς πείρας αὐτῆς καὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τῷ θεραπευτῇ λόγῳ καὶ ἀνδρὶ καταφαίνεται.





34. This, however, I take to be generally admitted—that just as it is not safe for those who walk on a lofty tight rope to lean to either side, for even though the inclination seems slight, it has no slight consequences, but their safety depends upon their perfect balance: so in be case of one of us, if he leans to either side, whether from vice or ignorance, no slight danger of a fail into sin is incurred, both for himself and those who are led by him. But we must really walk in the King’s highway, 77 and take care not to turn aside from it either to the right hand or to the left, 78 as the Proverbs say. For such is the case with our passions, and such in this matter is the task of the good shepherd, if he is to know properly the souls of his flock, and to guide them according to the methods of a pastoral care which is fight and just, and worthy of our true Shepherd.

ΛΔ. Καθόλου δὲ ἡμῖν ἐκεῖνο γνώριμον͵ ὅτι͵ καθάπερ τοῖς ἐπὶ κάλου μετεώρου καὶ ὑψηλοῦ βαίνουσι τῇδε ἢ τῇδε ἀποκλῖναι οὐκ ἀσφαλὲς͵ οὐδὲ εἰς μικρὸν φέρουσα ἡ ῥοπὴ͵ κἂν μικρὰ φαίνηται͵ ἀσφάλεια δὲ αὐτοῖς ἡ ἰσοῤῥοπία καθίσταται· οὕτω κἀν τούτοις ὁποτέρωσε νεύσῃ τις͵ εἴτε διὰ κακίαν͵ εἴτε δι΄ ἀμάθειαν͵ κίνδυνος οὐχ ὁ τυχὼν αὐτῷ τε καὶ τοῖς ἀγομένοις τοῦ τῆς ἁμαρτίας πτώματος. Ἀλλ΄ ὁδῷ βασιλικῇ πορευτέον ὄντως͵ καὶ περισκεπτέον͵ μήτε εἰς δεξιὰ μήτε εἰς ἀριστερὰ͵ καθὼς αἱ Παροιμίαι φασὶν͵ ἐκκλίνοντας. Οὕτω μὲν δὴ τὰ τῶν παθῶν ἔχει τῶν ἡμετέρων͵ καὶ τοσοῦτον ἐνταῦθα τὸ ἔργον τῷ ἀγαθῷ ποιμένι͵ τῷ γνωστῶς γνωσομένῳ ψυ χὰς ποιμνίου͵ καὶ ἀφηγησομένῳ κατὰ λόγον ποιμαν τικῆς͵ τῆς γε ὀρθῆς καὶ δικαίας͵ καὶ τοῦ ἀληθινοῦ ποιμένος ἡμῶν ἀξίας.





35. In regard to the distribution of the word, to mention last the first of our duties, of that divine and exalted word, which everyone now is ready to discourse upon; if anyone else boldly undertakes it and supposes it within the power of every man’s intellect, I am amazed at his intelligence, not to say his folly. To me indeed it seems no slight task, and one requiring no little spiritual power, to give in due season 79 to each his portion of the word, and to regulate with judgment the truth of our opinions, which are concerned with such subjects as the world or worlds, 80 matter, soul, mind, intelligent natures, better or worse, providence which holds together and guides the universe, and seems in our experience of it to be governed according to some principle, but one which is at variance with those of earth and of men.

ΛΕ. Αὐτὴν δὲ τὴν τοῦ λόγου διανομὴν͵ ἵνα τελευ 35.444 ταῖον εἴπω τὸ πρῶτον τῶν ἡμετέρων͵ τοῦ θείου λέγω καὶ ὑψηλοῦ͵ καὶ ὃν νῦν πάντες φιλοσοφοῦσιν͵ εἰ μέν τις ἄλλος θαῤῥεῖ͵ καὶ πάσης διανοίας ὑπολαμβά νει͵ θαυμάζω τοῦτον ἐγὼ τῆς συνέσεως͵ ἵνα μὴ λέγω τῆς εὐηθείας· ἐμοὶ δ΄ οὖν πρᾶγμα φαίνεται οὐ τῶν φαυλοτάτων͵ οὐδὲ ὀλίγου τοῦ πνεύματος͵ διδόναι κατὰ καιρὸν ἑκάστῳ τοῦ λόγου τὸ σιτομέτριον͵ καὶ οἰκονομεῖν ἐν κρίσει τὴν ἀλήθειαν τῶν ἡμετέρων δογμάτων· ὅσα περὶ κόσμων ἢ κόσμου πεφιλο σόφηται͵ περὶ ὕλης͵ περὶ ψυχῆς͵ περὶ νοῦ͵ καὶ τῶν νοερῶν φύσεων͵ βελτιόνων τε καὶ χειρόνων͵ περὶ τῆς τὰ πάντα συνδεούσης τε καὶ διεξαγούσης προνοίας͵ ὅσα τε κατὰ λόγον ἀπαντᾷν δοκεῖ͵ καὶ ὅσα παρὰ λόγον τὸν κάτω καὶ τὸν ἀνθρώπινον.


[1] It is generally agreed that this Oration was not intended for oral delivery. Its object was to explain and defend S. Gregory’s recent conduct, which had been severely criticised by his friends at Nazianzus. He had been recalled by his father probably during the year a.d. 361 from Pontus, where he had spent several years in monastic seclusion with his friend S. Basil. His father, not content with his son’s presence at home as a support for his declining years, and feeling assured of his fitness for the sacred office, had proceeded, with the loudly expressed approval of the congregation, in spite of Gregory’s reluctance, to ordain him to the priesthood on Christmas Day a.d. 361. S. Gregory, even after the lapse of many years, speaks of his ordination as an act of tyranny, and at the time, stung almost to madness, as an ox by a gadfly, rushed away again to Pontus, to bury in its congenial solitude, consoled by an intimate friend’s deep sympathy, his wounded feelings. Before long the sense of duty reasserted itself, and he returned to his post at his father’s side before Easter a.d. 362. On Easter Day he delivered his first Oration before a congregation whose scantiness marked the displeasure with which the people of Nazianzus had viewed his conduct. Accordingly he set himself to supply them in this Oration with a full explanation of the motives which had led to his retirement. At the same time, as the secondary title of the Oration shows, he has supplied an exposition of the obligations and dignity of the Priestly Office which has been drawn upon by all later writers on the subject. S. Chrysostom in his well-known treatise, S. Gregory the Great in his Pastoral Care, and Bossuet in his panegyric on S. Paul, have done little more than summarise the material or develop the considerations contained in this eloquent and elaborate dissertation.

1 Ps. xxvii. 7 (lxx).

2 Begin from God. Possibly an adaptation of the exordium of Theocr. Idyll, xvii. 1. εʼκ Δις αʼρχώμεσθα, κι εʼις Δία λήγετε, μοι̂σαι. “Let Zeus inspire our opening strain, And Muses, end your song in Zeus again.” Cf. Demosth. Epist. 1.

3 Ps. lv. 7.

18 1 Cor. xiv. 28.

19 S. Mar. vii. 5.

20 The sanctuary. i.e. That which gave the right to a place in the sanctuary, - the priesthood. Billius wrongly takes it of the episcopate.

21 Piety - for it is a mere external pretence, deceiving themselves as well as others. ειʼσέβαια here has the double sense of piety and orthodoxy = the former being the more prominent.

22 Is. liv. 13; S. Joh vi. 45.

23 Numb. xi. 29; 1 Cor. xiv. 24.

24 1 Sam. x. 11; xix. 24.

25 The finale of the question, or “the main conclusion of my subject.” lit. “the colophon of my reason.” λόγος cannot here mean “of my speech” for it has only just begun.

26 Cf. 1 Cor. iii. 12.

27 Hagg. ii. 12 et seq.

28 Job xxi. 18; Ps. lxxxiii. 13; Isai. v. 24; Joel ii. 5.

29 Painters, i.e. in our discourses; models by our lives and examples.

30 S. Luke iv. 23.

31 Ps. xxxvii. 27.

32 Rom xi. 35.

33 A plant. Cf. Orat. vi. 8, xxiii. 1. A favourite figure of S. Gregory.

34 1 Pet. v. 2.

35 The art of arts. This is the original of the frequently quoted commonplace, which in S. Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care, i. 1, takes the form “ars artium est regimen animarum”

36 Gen. iii. 19.

37 Eph. vi. 12.

38 1 Pet. i. 7.

39 Our will. Clémencet compares S. Bernard, de Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, xiv. 47 (tom. i. 1397, Gaume). Petavius, de Incarn, tom. v., p. 416, lib. IX., iii, 11, comments on this passage in treating of free will.

40 Its subject matter, i.e. the affection of the sick body, which it is the object of medicine to change to its opposite. So Combefis.

41 This treatment: the treatment of the spiritual physician.

42 Ps. cxli. 4 (lxx).

43 Ps. lviii. 5, 6 (lxx).

44 Amos v. 10.

45 1 Pet. iii, 4.

46 Gen i. 26.

47 Eph. iii. 17.

48 Gal. iii. 24.

49 Heb. xii. 2.

50 Phil. ii. 7.

51 Heb. ii. 14.

52 One consisting, &c. “These words” says Gabriel, “are indeed a two-edged sword against the heretics, for one clause mortally wounds Nestorius who separates the Divine from the Human Nature — the other Eutyches, who empties the human into the Divine.”

53 Was united, νεκράθη, lit., “was blended” — cf. Orat. xxxviii. 13. This and similar terms used by Gregory and his contemporaries in an orthodox sense were laid aside by later Fathers, in consequence of their having been perverted in favor of the Eutychian heresy.

54 By means of the soul, Cf. Orat. xxix. 19; xxxviii. 13; Epist. 101 (tom. 2. p. 90 A.): Poem. Dogmat., x., 53—61 (tom. 2, p. 256); Petavius de Incarn. IV., xiii.. 2.

55 Heb. viii. 8—13.

56 LIt. “of the formation” — the substantive here corresponds to the verb in Gen. ii. 7 (LXX.).

57 S. Luke ii. 7.

58 S. Matt. iii. 13, 17.

59 1 Cor. xv. 49.

60 S. Matt. ii. 9, 11.

61 S. Matt. iii. 13, 17.

62 S. Matt. iv. 2.

63 S. Matt. x. 7, 8.

64 Ps. ii. 1.

65 Gen. iii. 3. Why tree, &c. A striking contrast of the means of Redemption by the Cross of Christ with the circumstances of the Fall.

66 S. John xix. 17.

67 Gen. iii. 6–23.

68 S. Matt. xxvii. 35.

69 For the sake of resurrection. One translator carries on the contrast, and renders “to atone for the insurrection,” sc. of Adam. The preposition υ ̔πεπ seems decisive against this.

70 Rev. ii. 7; xxii. 14.

71 1 Cor. iii. 9; iv. 1; 2 Cor. vi. 1.

72 One of their wise men, the author of the treatise περὶ φυσω̂ν, ascribed to Hippocrates.

73 Those who, &c. μιγάδας, cf. xxi., 10, where μοναδικοι; and οι ̔ τη̂ς εʼρμυίας are distinguished from μιγάδες and οι ̔ τη̂ς εʼπιμιξίας. Clémencet here holds that οι ̔ τη̂ς εʼρημίας are hermits as distinguished from coenobites, but does not hint at any further subdivision between the κοινωνικοι; and the μιγάδες. Cf. also xliii. 62; xxi. 19. Montaut, “Revue Critique, &c.” (pp. 48—52) attempts to distinguish between the μιγάδες and the κοινωνικοί. But although he confirms the overthrow by Clémencet of the views of previous translators, he leaves Clémencet’s own position really unweakened. S. Gregory uses the two terms as practically convertible. In xxi.. § 19, (which Montaut misinterprets) he explains that the life of the coenobite is a hermit-life in its relation to the world which he has forsaken, while it has opportunities in community-life for the growth of those virtues which are required by the relation of man to man. Cf. Bened. edition (Clémencet), Praef. Gener., Pars. II., § iii. sub finem.

74 The source of persuasiveness, lit., “the medicine of persuasion.”

75 condescension, lit., ‘equity,ˇ0’ dealing gently with their weakness, not exacting the literal fulfilment of the law.

76 Are requisite to form, lit., by ’actual. . . they become clear to.’

77 Numb. xx. 17.

78 Prov. iv. 27.

79 S. Luke xii. 42.

80 Worlds, i.e. the invisible and visible. of which S. Greg. held that the former was created before the latter. cf. Orat. xviii. 3; xxvii. 10; xxviii. 31; xxxviii. 10; xl. 45.




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