Cent 1;     Cent 2;     Cent 3;    Cent 4;     Cent 5;    Cent 6


 

 

THE FIRST CENTURY  

 

THE FIRST CENTURY

Εὐαγρίου κεφάλαια [Muyld Evag

  

 

1.1

 

 I,1. TO the first good there is nothing opposed, because He is essentially [good]; thus there is no opposition as regards essence. 1,1. Τῷ πρώτῳ ἀγαθῷ οὐδέν ἐστιν ἐναντίον, διότι κατ' οὐσίαν ἐστίν· ἐναντίον δὲ οὐδὲν τῇ οὐσίᾳ. [Muyld Evag 1, p. 56]

Perhaps Evagrius seeks philosophical legitimacy for his work by beginning with the Categories of Aristotle.  Unlike his master Plotinus, Porphyry considered Aristotle's Categories a valuable introduction to logic: it would inspire numerous commentaries throughout the middle ages. Here:  Aristotle Categories 3b.24-26: Another mark of essence is that it has no contrary. What could be the contrary of any primordial [first] essence, such as the individual man or animal? It has none. Ὑπάρχει δὲ ταῖς οὐσίαις καὶ τὸ μηδὲν αὐταῖς ἐναντίον εἶναι. τῇ γὰρ πρώτῃ οὐσίᾳ τί ἂν εἴη ἐναντίον; οἷον τῷ (25) τινὶ ἀνθρώπῳ οὐδέν ἐστιν ἐναντίον,  


Cf. KG 1.89.  Evagrius generally employs the adjective ἐναντίος (opposing) and the noun ἐναντιότης (opposition) to describe evil or the demonic powers: cf. KG 1.10.  Evil (opposition) is not an essence, but rather a perverted essence. Cf. Greg.Nys Life of Moses 1.7:: “the Divine does not admit of an opposite,” (ἀπαρά δεκτον δὲ τοῦ ἐναντίου τὸ Θεῖον).


Ὑπάρχει δὲ ταῖς οὐσίαις καὶ τὸ μηδὲν αὐταῖς ἐναντίον εἶναι. τῇ γὰρ πρώτῃ οὐσίᾳ τί ἂν εἴη ἐναντίον; οἷον τῷ (25) τινὶ ἀνθρώπῳ οὐδέν ἐστιν ἐναντίον, Arist.Cat. 3b.24-26


[S1] Το πρωτον αγαθον ουκ εχει αντικειμενον ως τηι ουσιαι αγαθον· η δε ουσια ουκ εχει εναντιον.

1.2

 

 I,2. THE opposition is in the qualities, and the qualities are in the creatures; opposition is therefore in the creatures. 1,2. ̈Ἡ ἐναντιότης ἐν ταῖς ποιότησιν· αἱ δὲ ποιότητες ἐν τοῖς κτίσμασιν· ἡ ἐναντιότης ἄρα ἐν τοῖς κτίσμασιν. [Muyld Evag 2, p. 56]

cf Aristotle Categories 10b.12-14: One quality may be the contrary of another;  [...] The things, also, which are said to be such and such in virtue of these qualities, may be contrary the one to the other  Ὑπάρχει δὲ καὶ ἐναντιότης κατὰ τὸ ποιόν, [...]  καὶ τἆλλα ὡσαύτως, καὶ τὰ κατ’ αὐτὰς δὲ ποιὰ λεγόμενα,


On ποιότες, quality: KG 1.39, 2.18, 2.83. 4.84, 5.19, 6.3, 6.45, 6.72, 6.78, [?5.18]. Prayer, Prol.2, 151Schol 5 On Ps 96.7; Gnost. 41; Letter on Faith 3.3-4, Schol 52 on Eccl 6.10-12, Letter 3, Thoughts 31.On opposition in creatures and qualities: cf. (Great) Letter to Melania, 3541-43.  Although evil, vice, and death first arise in the wake of creation (cf KG 1.44) there are nevertheless primordial seeds of virtue implanted in the soul at its creation (KG 1.39-1.40)


[S1] Εναντιοτης εστιν εν ταις ποιοτησι, ποιοτητες δε εν τοις σωμασι· εναν[[τιοτης]] αρα εν τοις κτισμασιν.

1.3

 

 I,3. EVERY reasoning nature is a knowing (knowledge-seeking) essence, but our God is known to Himself: indivisibly He dwells in those in whom He dwells, like earthly art; but He is superior to this in that He exists substantially.


Cf Aristotle, Metaphysics 1.1 (980a.21) “All men by nature desire to know; Πάντες ἄνθρωποι τοῦ εἰδέναι ὀρέγονται φύσει.     Cf. KG 1.87 The desire for knowledge, common to all reasoning beings, is also desire for God Who alone knows Himself. Cf. KG 2.34; On art and divine wisdom KG 2.46

̈1,3. Πᾶσα λογικὴ φύσις οὐσία γινώσκουσά ἐστιν· ὁ δὲ Θεὸς ἡμῶν αὐτὸ γινωσκόμενόν ἐστιν, ἀμερίστως μὲν ἐγγινόμενος, οἷ ἂν ἐγγένηται· καθάπερ ἡ ἐπίγειος ἐπιστήμη· διαφέρων δὲ ταύτης τὸ ἐνυπόστατος εἶναι.̈ [Muyld, Evag 3, p. 56]

[S1] Πασα φυσις λογικη κτισις νοερα εστι, θεος δε μονος νοητος εστιν ου διασχισθεις εν οις κατοικει· πως δε νοειται θεος εν οις κατοικει; ως τεχνη εν τεχνιταις· διαφερει δε τωι ουσιωδως κατοικειν εν οις κατοικει.

1.4

 

 I,4. ALL that has come into being is either susceptible to opposition or is constituted of opposition. But those who are susceptible to opposition are not all yoked to those constituted of opposition.


The possession of free will (KG 6.43) entails the possibility of separation from (opposition to) God. All reasoning beings are either capable of opposition as angels or demons, or are demons with “bodies of opposition” (KG 1.10, 1.11; also called “bodies of ignorance,” KG 3.9).  Cf  Cf. Greg.Nys Life of Moses 1.5: “Because no Good has a limit in its own nature but is limited by the presence of its opposite, [...] And every good thing generally ends with all those things which are perceived to be contrary to the good.” [ὅτι πᾶν ἀγαθὸν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ φύσει ὅρον οὐκ ἔχει͵ τῇ δὲ τοῦ ἐναντίου παραθέσει ὁρίζεται͵ [...] καὶ πᾶν ὅλως ἀγαθὸν εἰς πάντα τὰ τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἐκ τοῦ ἐναντίου νοούμενα λήγει· ]

̈1,4. Πάντα τὰ γεγονότα ἢ τῶν ἐναντίων ἐστὶν δεκτικὰ, ἢ ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων συνέστικεν· οὐ πάντα δὲ τὰ τῶν ἐναντίων δεκτικὰ καὶ τοῖς ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων συνεστῶσι συνέζευκται. [Muyld, Evag 4, p. 56]


Καὶ πάλιν πάντα τὰ κτίσματα ἢ ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων συνέστηκεν ἢ τῶν ἐναντίων ἐστὶ δεκτικά. EpF

[S1] Παν γενομενον η δεκτικον της εναντιοτητος η εξ εναντιων κατεστη· αλλ ου παν δεκτικον της εναντιοτητος προς τα εξ εναντιων συνεστωτα προσδεδεται.

I.5

 

 I,5. PRINCIPLES do not engender and are not engendered, but the intermediate (mesotēs) engenders and is engendered.

 1,5. Αἱ ἀκρότητες οὔτε γεννῶσιν, οὔτε γεννῶνται· ἡ δὲ μεσότης καὶ γεννᾷ καὶ γεννᾶται. [Muyld, Evag 5, p. 5, 57]

[S1] Αι αρχαι ουτικτουσιν ουδε τικτονται αι πρωται αιτιαι ου τικτουσι τικτονται δε {Δ}, η δε μσοτης και τικτει και τικτεται.



This kephalaion may be interpreted in at least two ways: First at the level of praktiké, in the sense of Aristotelian ethical theory.  Evagrius familiarity with Aristotle’s theory (Nich Eth.II.5-6) is clear in his definition of virtue as a mean/μεσότης between two opposing vices in scholion 53 on Proverbs 4.27. In that scholion he also cites Aristotle's example of courage as a mean between timidity and rashness (Nich Eth.II.7). Here Evagrius indicates that a moral extreme/ἀκρότης (i.,e. excess or deficiency) is not “productive” of virtue, which is the mean/μέσότες and is “productive”.  Evagrius uses  ἀκρότη[τε]ς  in this sense of “excessive” in Eulog. 32  and twice in Thoughts/Peri.Log. 35: concerning gluttony (SC 438. 35.3, p.274); and acedia (SC 438: 35.25, p.276).   This assumes that ἀκρότης  understood as “extreme/excess” is the underlying Greek term (as in the Muyldermans fragment) and not Frankenberg’s retroversion of ἀρχαὶ.   At the level of physiké this kephalaion may explicate Evagrius’ cosmology and protology. In patristic usage ἀκρότης can also mean “excellence” (Lampe, p.66)

Thus the text can be interpreted to mean that Excellences/ Principalities/ angels neither beget nor are begotten; whereas humans (who are midway/μέσότες between angels and demons) both beget and are begotten.  This second interpretation may explain Frankenberg’s preference for ἀρχαὶ in the sense of principalities/angels (Rom. 1.16, cited by Evagrius de Orat. 112).

1.06

 

 I,6. BY way of comparison: [1] we are one thing but [2] that which is in us is another thing; and [3] that in which we are is [yet] another [thing]; but they [all exist] together, namely: [a] that in which we are; and [b] that which [contains] that in which we are.  Cf KG 1.171.44.

̈[S1] 1,6. Κατα συγκρισιν ημεις αλλο τι εσμεν και αλλο το εν ημιν και αλλο το ρν ω ημεις· ως δε εν {ταυτο δε ε.} εστι το εν ω ημεις.

1.7

 

 I,7. WHEN those that are together are withdrawn, number will also be withdrawn; and when this is withdrawn, that which is in us and that in which we are will be one.


On the eschatological transformation of multiplicity into unity: withdrawal of names and numbers cf KG 2.17;. (Great) Letter 64 to Melania, 22-23; 26-27. Number will be withdrawn at advent of Monad:  Epist.Fidei 7 [25]

 1,7. ’Αναιρουμένων τῶν ἅμα, ἀναιρεῖται καὶ ὁ ἀριθμός· καὶ τούτου ἀναιρεθέντος, ταὐτὸν ἔσται τὸ ἐν ἡμῖν καὶ τὸ ἐν ᾧ ἐσμεν. [Muyld, Evag 6, p. 57]

[S1] Εαν εκ μεσου αρθηι το εν ον αριθμωι συναιρεται και ο αριθμος· του δε αριθμου αρθεντος εν εσται το εν ημιν και εν ωι ημεις.

1.08

 

 I,8. WHEN that in which we ought to have been was separated, it engendered that in which we [now] are; but when that which is in us is mixed, He will withdraw that which will be withdrawn [along] with number.  KG 1.61.71.162.453.27 Engendering: KG 1.91.481.49 Mixing (mingling): KG 4.74.

[S1] 1,8. Οτε αφωρισθη το εν ωι μελλομεν εσεσθαι εγεννησε το εν ωι ημεις· οταν δε το εν ημιν συγκραθηι αρει εκ μεσου το αριθμῳ διασχιζον ημας.

1.09

 

 I,9. WHEN we are in that which is, we see that which is; but when [we are] in that which is not, we engender that which is not. But when those [things] in which we are is withdrawn, then that which is not will cease to be.


In our embodied (fallen) state we most easily see (contemplate) the multiplicity of creation (cf. KG 2.5).  If we contemplate sin we engender and imprint impassioned concepts in the nous.  This will cease at the advent of eschatological Oneness (The Monad)  cf. KG 1.7, Epist.Fidei 7 [25].  Cf. KG 1.6; Engendering/begetting: KG 1.5; seeing: 1.702.284.684.905.605.61 withdrawing (taking away) 1.7 He/That Which Is: KG 1.12, 1.14, 1.17  2.5.

̈1,9. Γενομενοι εν τωι οντι ορωμεν την αληθειαν αυτου ως εστι· γενομενοι δε εν τωι ουκ οντι γεννησομεν το ουκ ον· αρθεντος δε εκ ͅ μεσου τουτου του εν ωι εσμεν ευθις ουκ εσται το ουκ ον.

1.10

 

 I,10. AMONG the demons, some oppose the practice of the commandments, others oppose thoughts of nature, and others oppose words [logoi] about divinity because the knowledge of our salvation is constituted from these three.

̈1,10. Των δαιμονων εναντιουνται οι μεν τηι των εντολων θρησκειι, {τηι πρακτικηι} οι δε τηι των φυσεων επιγνωσει, οι δε τοις περι του θειου λογοις, {͂της θεολογιαι} δι οτι και η της σωτηριας ημων γνωσις εν τουτοις τοις τρισι καθεστηκε.



Having raised the subject of “opposition” to God and nature in the first nine kephalia, Evagrius here offers his model of spiritual progress in the context of demonology.  Evagrius believed that all intelligent beings participated in a primordial “movement” or fall from union with God.  Angels are the least fallen, while demons are farthest from God and agents of “opposition”. Human beings are in an intermediate state, capable of ascent from ascetical practice (praktiké), to the contemplation of nature (physiké), and finally to knowledge of God (theologiké) (Praktikos 1; Gnost 12-13, Ad Mon.118, 119, 120).They are aided in this return by angels and impeded by demons that are differentiated according to (among other characteristics): their distance from God; their cruelty and violence; and as described here  their specialized opposition to different aspects of spiritual progress (Praktikos 84; cf. 43; 50; Scholia: 1 On Ps.78.2; 2 On Ps.117.10;  266 On Prov.24.6; ). On creation(s) and fall (“movement”/ kinesis): cf. KG 1.50; 1.51; 3.22; 5.24; 6.19; 6.20; 6.85.  Fall of demons: KG 3.34.

Evagrius highlights different aspects of the nature and activity of demons throughout the Kephalia Gnostica, especially in: KG  1.21, 1.22, 1.53, 1.57, 1.68, 2.48, 2.53, 3.4, 3.34, 3.41, 3.50, 3.76, 3.78, 3.79, 3.90, 4.33, 4.35, 4.37, 4.47, 4.59, 4.60, 4.82, 4.85, 5.11, 5.18, 5.78, 5.82, 6.2, 6.25, 6.26, 6.37, 6.52, 6.69.

1.11

 

 I,11. ALL those who now possess spiritual bodies reign over the worlds that have been made; and those who are joined to praktike bodies or to opposing [bodies], will exercise their reign over worlds yet to come. 1,11. Παντες οσοι τα νυν σωματα πνευματικα κεκτηνται βασιλευουσι εν τοις γενομενοις αιωσιν· οσοι δε εν σωμασιν εργαταις συνεχονται εν τοις μελλουσιν αιωσι βασιλευσουσιν.

Cf. KG 6.24. Here Evagrius describes the three orders of intelligent beings: (1) angels, who possess spiritual bodies and mediate God's providential care; (2) human beings who practice asceticism in praktike bodies; and (3) demons who are agents of opposition.   The latter two groups, humans and demons, will undergo a series of transformation intended to aid them in making spiritual progress. Evagrius calls these transformations “judgments (kriseis),not in the sense of condemnation, but rather God's providential bestowal on them of new bodies and environments (worlds and ages) best suited to their particular needs.(Sch 10 on Ps 1 on praktike bodies and judgment).


These healing transformations culminate in apokatastasis -, restoration of all to union with God.  Evagrius does not use this (later condemned) technical term, but see KG 3.9 for discussion of restoration of the demons, & cf. Sch 136 On Prov 14.9. On the creation of worlds in knowledge by the nous, KG 1.65

.12

 

 I,12. ONE [“unique”] is He Who is without intermediaries, and thus He is also, by means of mediations, in all.


for unique  cf also KG 3,1KG 4,16.  Christ as mediator: Origen, De Prin.1.2.4. He/That Which Is: KG 1.09, 1.12, 1.17  2.5.

̈1,12. Εις εστιν ο ων ανευ μεσιτειας και εις αυθις ουτος ο δια μεσιτων εν πασιν ων.

1.13

 

 I,13. AMONG the logikoi, some possess spiritual contemplation and [spiritual] praktiké, others praktiké and contemplation; and still others hindrance and judgment.


These logikoi (reasoning beings) are, respectively, angels, humans, and demons.  The threefold ordering of spiritual progress (praktiké, gnostiké, theologiké) is foreshadowed in Origen, Com.S.of S.prol.1.3.4.  Cf. Gnost 2-349Prak 84.

̈1,13. Των λογικων οι μεν θεωριαν τε και θρησκειαν πνευματικην κεκτηνται οι δε θρησκειαν και θεωριαν, οι δε εν εμποδισμωι και κρισει κατεχονται.

1.14

 

 I,14. FOR each one of the arts, you see in it [something] of the one who made it; but you will discover in all things the knowledge of Him Who Is, if our Lord made everything with wisdom. (Ps 104:24)  Cf. KG 2.1;   Sch 1 On Ps 122.1. “He/That Who Is: KG 1.09, 1.12, 1.17  2.5.

̈1,14.̈Ἑκάστην τῶν ἐπιστημῶν ἐν τῷ οἰκίῳ̈μόνῳ θεωρίσεις ἐπιστητῷ· τὴν δὲ τοῦ ὄντως γνῶσιν ἐν πᾶσιν τοῦ́τοις εὑρήσεις. [Muyld, Evag 7, p. 57]

[S1]Εν παντι τεχνηματι τον αυτου προεστωτα ορας· εν δε θεωριαι της γνωσεως της αληθινης εν πασι τουτοις ευρησεις, διοτι παν ο κυριος εν σοφιαι εκτισεν.

1.15

 

 I,15. WHEN the four are withdrawn, the five will also be withdrawn; but when the five are withdrawn, the four will not be withdrawn with them.


The “five” are probably the five corporeal senses (cf. KG 2.39-2.41). On five spiritual (noetic) senses cf. KG 2.35.  The “four” may refer to the four elements (earth, air, fire, water) present in different proportions in the logikoi (KG 2.51; 1.68   6.25) or the “four virtues necessary for contemplation:” prudence, courage, temperance/continence, and justice (Gnostikos 44; ?KG 1.83),  Thus the virtues remain even when corporeality disappears.  A similar interpretation of this kephalaion applies if the “four” signifies the fourfold spiritual senses of scripture described by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 1.28.76.1-3) and cited by Evagrius (schol.15 on Ps. 76.21): namely, the  historical, legislative, liturgical, and theological senses; or  [1] as a type of something evident; [2] or a revealed [visible] sign [3] or a commandment instituted for proper living; [4] or fortelling, like a prophecy.  Also, In Stromata 5.34.4, “four” refer to the four pillars of the Temple into which the gnostic enters and leads others; “five” can refer to the five senses that can serve the gnostikos’ entry into the Temple. The four is a necessary condition for the five. A medieval interpreter added a comment in the Greek fragment: “For in the enyokement of the soul, when the four elements of the body are annuled, the five senses also are annulled. But when the five senses are annulled in philosophical death, its four elements are not also annulled.”  See below, note on KG 1.16 for 4 or 40 vs. 5 as Lent/Pascha and Pentecost. On fourfold exegesis: Sch. 15 on Ps 76.21.

̈1,15. Τεσσαρων αρθεντων αιρονται και πεντε· των πεντε δε αρθεντων ουκ αιρονται δια ταυτα και τα τεσσαρα.


Ἀναιρουμένων τῶν τεσσάρων, ἀναιροῦνται καὶ τὰ πέντε· ἀναιρουμένων δὲ τῶν πέντε, οὐκ ἀναιροῦνται καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα· τῇ διαζεύξει γὰρ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀναιρουμένων τῶν τεσσάρων στοιχείων τοῦ σώματος, ἀναιροῦνται καὶ αἱ πέντε αἰσθήσεις· ἀναιρουμένων δὲ τῶν πέντε αἰσθήσεων τῇ φιλοσόφῳ νεκρώσει τοῦ σώματος, οὐκ ἀναιροῦνται καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα τούτου στοιχεῖα. [Muyld, 1932]

1.16

 

 I,16. THAT which has been separated from the five will not be separated from the four, but that which has been separated from the four is also delivered from the five.


Probably the four elements and five senses; but Evagrius also relates the five and four (or forty) with Lent/Pascha and Pentecost: KG 2.382.392.402.412.42,  Cf. Ad Mon 40 - 43.:Thus the corporeality of the five senses is preparation for knowledge of Pentecost: both resurrection of the soul (Ad Mon 40) and love (Ad Mon 42) Pascha is passing over from vices; Pentecost is both resurrection of the soul (Ad Mon 40) and love (Ad Mon 42). :

̈1,16. Ος αφωρισται των πεντε ουκ αφεστηκε των τεσσαρων. ος δε αφωρισται των τεσσαρων ἀπεδρα και τα πεντε.

1.17

 

 I,17. WHEN that which is in us is changed, those [things] in which we are will be changed; and this even to the extent that He Who Is will no longer be named with modes.


Cf. KG 1.6.  On “change:” KG 1.222.382.903.73.25, 3.483.50 = Sch 8 On Ps 1.5. Cf KG 6.20 on the names (modes/epinoiai) by which God is known before and after the movement. He Who Is: KG 1.14, 1.19.  KG 1.09, 1.12, 1.14, 2.5.

̈1,17. Κατορθουμενον εν ημιν το εν ημιν κατορθοι εν ημιν το εν το εν ωι ημεις και ουτως αυξανει η κατορθωσις εως ουκετι τροπικως ονομαζεται το ον.

1.18

 

 I,18. THE goal of the praktiké and of suffering is the heritage of the saints (Col 1.12), but that which is opposed to the first is the cause of the second; and the end result of this is the heritage of those who are opposed.

̈1,18. Περας εργασιας τε και βασανισμου η των αγιων κληρονομια εστι· το δε εντικειμενον τωι πρωτωι αιτια του δευτερον εσται· και περας τουτου κληρονομια εστι των εναντιων.



An allusion to Col. 1.12 (and perhaps also to Eph 1.18), where Paul extols the heritage of the saints in light. Evagrius regarded the suffering caused by demons who oppose the praktiké as potentially beneficial for the saints, but defiling for the demons responsible:  “an unclean soul is the heritage of the demons.” Sch 3 on Ps 82.13.  Inheritance/heritage of Christ: KG 2.7, 3.724.84.9, {4.785.365.68; Schol 40 on Prov 3.35, To Monks 1}.

 

1.19

 

 I,19. KNOWLEDGE that is in the four is the knowledge of logoi of creatures, but the knowledge of the One is the knowledge of Him Who alone Is.


Logoi are the inner meanings, divine purposes, hidden within created things: contemplative knowledge is required for the kind of examination that reveals them: Cf. Gnostikos 4Thoughts.(Peri.Log). 19; Sch 5 On Ps. 118.7. KG 2.302.45.  “He Who Is: KG 1.14, 1.17.

̈1,19. Η εν τεσσαρσι γνωσις εστι συνεσεως των φυσεων· η δε ενος γνωσις εστι του μονου οντος.

1.20

 

 I,20. WHEN only thoughts of all that was made by accident remain in us, then only he who is known will be known - and  only by him who knows. (Matt 24:35)


Evagrius distinguishes between transitory things and events (pragmata) that “pass away” and the contemplation of both these things and God that “does not pass away” Mt 24.35 (Schol 72 On Prov. 6.8). Cf Sch 1 on Ps 18

̈1,20. Οταν παντες οι λογοι μονον των οντων μεινωσιν προς ημας τοτε το γνωστον υπο του γιγνωσκοντος μονον γνωσθησεται κατα το γεγραμμενον· ο ουρανος και η γη παρελευσεται και οι λογοι μου ου μη παρελθωσιν.

1.21

 

 I,21. AMONG the goods and evils that are regarded as unnecessary, some are found in the soul and others outside it; but [as for] those said naturally to be evil, it is impossible that they would be outside it.


Evils within the soul are vices (κακίαι) that one can remove, hence unnecessary. Cf. Prak 47

̈1,21. Αγαθα τε και κακα τα γε ανευ χρησεως νομιζομενα τα μεν εντος της ψυχης τα δε εκτος αυτης ευρισκεται· τα δε αληθως κακα ͅ εκτος αυτης ουχ οιον τε [[---εθηναι.

1.22

 

 I,22. THE bodies of demons have color and form but they escape our senses, because their composition (krasis/blending of elements) is not the composition of bodies that our senses apprehend. For when they wish to appear as persons, they transform themselves into the complete likeness of our body, while not showing us their bodies.


KG 1.11, On the composition of demons KG 1.68. On the respective functions and physical effects of demons and angels: cf. Prak 24 & 76; Ant.4.22.  Inability to see demons: KG 6.69.

. 1,22. Τα λεπτα των δαιμονων σωματα χρωματος και σχηματος μονον δεκτικα αλλα τας αισθησεις ημων φευγει δια το μη ομοιον ͅ ειναι εκεινην την κρασιν τηι των σωματων των ασθητων. βουλομενοι γαρ οραθηναι τοις ανθρωποις εν ομοιωματι των αισθητων σωματων ορωνται ου δεικνυντες τα λεπτα αυτων σωματα.

1.23

 

 I,23. THE thoughts [logoi] of things on earth are the good [things] of the earth; but if the holy angels know them, according to the word of Teqoah (2Sam 14:20), the angels of God eat the goods of the earth. But it is said, Man eats the bread of angels. (Ps 78:25)  Thus, clearly, certain men know the thoughts [logoi] of that which is on the earth.


̈1,23. Συνεσεις των λογων των εν τηι γηι ονομαζονται αγαθα της γης εν [ει] δε ταυτα καλως γιγνωσκουσιν οι αγιοι αγγελοι κατα το ρημα της εκ θεκωε γυναικος οι τε αγγελοι του θεου τα αγαθα της γης εσθιουσι, κατα το γεγραμμενον αρτον των αγγελων εσθιει ο ανθρωπος, δηλον οτι τους των εν γηι συνεσεων λογους και εκ των ανθρωπων εγνωσιν.


Evagrius defines “the goods of earth”as the logoi or inner purposes of terrestrial affairs known to the angels who minister God's providence. (cf. Scholion 7 on Ps.16.13)   Here he composes a syllogism employing this definition and two biblical texts: Ps 78.25,  “mere men ate the bread of angels;”(cf Scholion 103 on Prov 9.2) and 2 Sam 14:20, where the servant-woman Tekoah praises David who possesses “wisdom like an angel of God,  knowing all things on earth.”(cf. Sch 6 on Ps. 4.7(2); 7 on Ps 29.8; Sch 38 on Prov.5.7; KG 5..7; Gnost 16).  On logoi, see note above on KG 1.19

These texts and his conclusion that some human beings attain to angelic knowledge recur throughout his biblical scholia: Scholia 6 on Ps. 4.7(2); ; 4 on Ps.68.5(3); 10 on Ps. 77.25; 24 on 88.51; 8 on Ps. 138,16(2); 1 on Ps 144.1.  Sch.103 on Prov 9.2;.Sch. 38 on Prov 5.7.  Cf, Gnostikos 16. 40.

1.24

 

 I,24. IF the sprout is potentially (in potentia / kata dunamin) in the seed with power, then perfection (telos) is also potentially in the one able to receive it. But if this is so, the seed and that which is in are not the same, nor is the sprout the same as that which is in the grain. But the seed of that which is held by the sprout and the sprout of this seed are the same. For although the seed becomes the sprout, the seed of that which is in the sprout has not yet received the sprout. But when it is liberated from sprout and seed, it will have the ear of the first seed. (cf. Mt 13.24)


The primordial “Seeds of Virtue,” discussed below and frequently in Evagrius' works (see notes and references on KG 1.39 & 1.40) will prevail and eventually bear fruit.  Distinction between potentiality and activity, cf. KG 1.46 1.55. [& corruptibility/destruction: KG 2.33] cf Gnost 44; cf  KG 1.39-40; Peri Log 31; Eulog. 10; Letter 18.2; 41.4; 43.3; 45.1; 59.3; Let.Mel,68/concl; Sch 62 On. Prov 5.14.  Primordial “Seeds of Virtue:” 1.39 1.40.

̈1,24. Εἰ ὁ στάχυς κατὰ δύναμιν ἐν τῷ κόκκῳ, καὶ τὸ τέλος κατὰ δύναμιν ἐν τῷ αἰτίῳ· οὐτ' αὐτὸν ὁ κόκκος καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ κόκκῳ, οὐδ' ὁ στάχυς καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ κόκκῳ. [Muyld Evag 8, p. 57]

[S1] Ει ο σταχυς δυναμει κεκρυπται ͅ εν τωι κοκκωι και η τελειωσις δυναμει κεκρυπται εν τοις δεκτικοις· ει δε ταυτα ουτως εχει ου ταυτον εστιν ο κοκκος και το εν αυτωι ουδε ο σταχυς και το εν τωι κοκκωι· το δε αυτο εστιν ο χορτος ο αμφι τον σταχυν και ο σταχυς τουτου του κοκκου· ει γαρ ο κοκκος γενησεται σταχυς αλλ ουκετι ο κοκκος ο εν τωι σταχυι τον αυτου σταχυν εδεξατο· εαν δε ο κοκκος αποβαληι τον σταχυν και τον αυτου σταχυν αποληψεται.

 

 

 I,25. THERE are those who would sift us (Luke 22:31) with temptations, either questioning the reasoning part of the soul, or striving to seize the impassioned part, either with regard to the body or the body’s environment. KG 6.25; Cf. KG 1.533.904.474.604.85,

̈1,25. οι θελοντες σινιασαι ημας πειρασμοις η την λογικην δυναμιν της ψυχης ζητουσι η το απαθες μερος εν αυτηι καταλαβειν διισχυριζονται η το σωμα η παντα τα περι το σωμα.

1.26

 

 I,26. IF the human body is  part of this world, but the form of this world is passing [away], (1Cor 7:31) then it is evident that the form of the body will also pass [away]. Cf ~ KG 1.222.62

̈1,26. Ει μερος εστι του κοσμου τουτου το ανθρωπινον σωμα παραγει δε το σχημα του κοσμου τουτου δηλον οτι και το σχημα του σωματος παραγει.

1.27

 

 I,27. FIVE are the principal contemplations under which all contemplation is placed. It is said that the first is contemplation of the adorable and holy Trinity; the second and third are the contemplation of incorporeal beings and of corporeal beings; the fourth and the fifth are the contemplation of judgment and of providence.


KG 1.704.86 Prak. 32, Same ranking of the five types of contemplation: Sch 2 on Prov. 1.1; partial (three of five) in Sch 2 on Ps. 54.7 For Evagrius “providence” refers to God's ongoing provision of what each reasoning being requires in order to return to divine union.  It concerns both free will on the part of the reasoning being (KG 6.43) and the assistance constantly provided by angels (Sch 7 On Ps 16.13(2-3); Sch 38 On Eccl 5.7-11) and also provided by every rank of reasoning being in varied worlds to those below them (KG 6.76).  “Judgment” refers to the successive transformations (kriseis) that enable one to make spiritual progress after death: Schol 10 on Psalm 1.5; KG 3.38KG 5.11.

̈1,27. Πεντε θεωριαι αρχικαι εισιν ων ο σκοπος περιεχει πασας τας θεωριας. η μεν πρωτη εστι καθως λεγουσιν οι πατερες θεωρια της προσκυνητης Τριαδος, η δευτερα τε και η τριτη θεωρια των ασωματων και των σωματων, η δε τεταρτη και η πεμπτη θεωρια της κρισεως τε και της προνοιας του θεου.

 

 

 I,28. AMONG the many ways, there are three ways of salvation that have in common that they destroy sins; but only two of them obtain that they might deliver from passions, and the virtue of the third is that it will be the cause of glory. However, the glory of psalmody accompanies the first, the praise [of psalmody] the second, and the glory of exaltation the third.


Here Evagrius returns to the three “ways” of salvation described above in KG 1.10: ascetical practice (praktiké), the contemplation of nature (physiké), and knowledge of God (theologiké). The first two, ascetical practice and contemplation, free the soul from suffering or “passion”/πάθος by teaching the skills of resisting temptation and attaining virtue.  Psalmody calms thumos (Prak 15) and is a means of engaging in the “richly-varied contemplation of nature” (On Prayer 86,  Scholia 8 on Psalm 44:10 and 1 on Psalm 122:1. cf. Eph. 3:9-10), to which the soul responds in “hymnody with glorification” (Sch 5 on Ps 39.4). “Exaltation” accompanies theologiké , the imageless wordless perception of God that Evagrius also calls “most intense love” and “the state of prayer” (On Prayer.53;   Sch.1 on Ps.144.1). Glory: KG 1.813.37, {~ Prak prol.3}.

̈1,28. εν πληθει των οδων τρεις εισιν ͅ οδοι τς σωτηριας αι κοινως κεκτηνται το τας αμαρτιας εξαλειψαι, ιδιως δε δυο κεκτηνται το ελευθερωσαι ημας παθων· η δε αρετη ιδια της τριτης εστιν οτι αιτια της δοξης γινεται. επεται δε τηι πρωτηι δοξα {} της ψαλμδιας τηι δε δευτεραι επιφωνησις της ψαλμωδιας τηι δεπρατηι δοξα της υψωσεως.

 

 

 I,29. JUST as color, form, and number disappear along with bodies, so too matter is destroyed along with the four elements; [for together with them it {formerly} did not exist but came to be.] (Bracketed portion in Syriac, but not in Greek fragment)


In the eschaton, Unity will replace the multiplicity of bodies, elements, form, color, and number. On the destruction of bodies, KG 2.77, 3.663.68.  At the time of prayer the monk should not seek form, shape or color: Prayer 114, thus anticipating the world to come.

̈1,29.Ὡς χρῶμα καὶ σχῆμα καὶ ἀριθμὸς τοῖς σώμασι συναπέρχεται, οὕτως καὶ τοῖς τέτρασι στοιχίοις ἡ ὕλη συνδιαφθείρεται. [Muyld, Evag 9, p. 57]

[S1]Ωσπερ μετα των σωματων υπαγει χρωματα και σχηματα και αριθμοι ουτως  μετα των τεσσαρων στοιχειων και η υλη αφανιζεται· μετ' αυτων γαρ κεκτηται το οτι ουκ ην και οτι εγενετο.

1.30

 

 I,30. ONLY fire is distinct from the four elements, because of what is alive within it.

Fire predominates in angels (KG 2.29. 2.51, 2.72, 3.9); it is a medium of purification in the world to come (KG 3.8, 3.39).  Our God is a consuming fire: (Heb 1.7, cf. Ex 3.2, Rom 12.11, Jer 5.14).

̈1,30. Μονον το πυρ των τεσσαρων στοιχειων διαφερει τωι εν αυτωι ζωντι.

 

 

 I,31. AS among the peoples there is Israel, and among the lands [there is] the land of Judah, and among cities [there is] Jerusalem (cf. Gal 4.26); so also the purpose of the allegories of thoughts  (cf. Gal 4.24) is the portion of the Lord. (Deut 32:9)


For Evagrius the phrase “The portion of the Lord” (Deut. 32.9) describes the gnostikos’ capacity for allegorical interpretation.  Thus the “Lord’s portion” is angelic “knowledge of the Lord” (Sch 5 on Ps 118.7) “knowledge of God” (Sch 9 On Ps 49.18; Sch 10 on Ps 67.14; Sch. 42 on Ecclesiastes 5.17-19 (SC 397 p.38) and “wisdom” (Sch 3 on Ps. 141.6). On the allegorical meanings of: “Judah”, KG 6.49; “Jerusalem”, KG 5.6, 5.21, 5.82, 5.88, 6.49, Letter 25.4-5.

̈1,31. Ωσπερ εν τοις ανθρωποις Ισραηλ και εν τας χωραις η της Ιουδαιας και εν ταις πολεσιν Ιεροσολυμα μερος του Κυριου κεκληται ουτως και ο σκοπος των αλληγοριων των διδακτικων εν πασι λογοις μερος του Κυριου εστιν.

1.32

 

 I,32. THOSE who have seen something of that which is in the natures have seen only their common appearance; for only the just have received their spiritual knowledge of their natures. But one who disputes this is like him who said, I was acquainted with Abraham when he traveled with two wives .(Gen 16-17) He spoke the truth but he did not see the two covenants (Gal 4:22-31) and did not understand those who are born from them.


Cf. Sch.1-2 On Prov. 1.1.;   Thoughts (Peri.Log.) 25Sch 15 On Eccl 3.10-13.  Only the just can have spiritual knowledge: Cf. Scholion 15 On Eccl. 3.10-13. Cf  KG 1.722.33.15, 3.35, 3.42. Here and in the preceding kephalaion Evagrius alludes to the sole instance in the scriptures where the term allegory is used: Gal. 4.22-31, where Hagar represents Mount Sinai and the old covenant (i.e. slavery), while Sarah is the Jerusalem above and the new covenant which signifies freedom.

̈1,32. Οιτινες τι των φυσεων ειδον ευχερει {ευτελει} θεωριαι μονον επεβλεψαν· τνη γαρ πνευματικην των φυσεων γνωσιν δικαιοι μοννον εδεξαντο· ο δ'αν ισχυριζομενος προς ταυτα ομοιος εστι τωι λεγοντι οτι ωμιλησα Αβρααμ οτε μετα των δυο γυναικων ην· ουτος μεν το αληθες ειπε τας δε δυο διαγηκας ουχ εωρακε τε και τους υπ' αυτων τεχθεντες ου διενοηθη.

1.33

 

 I,33. JUST as each of the arts needs a sharpened sense that conforms to its matter, so also the nous needs a sharpened spiritual sense to distinguish spiritual things.


The “sharpened spiritual sense” of the nous is characterized by  “continually increasing yearning for God” (On Prayer 118). It is attained through a kind of anaesthesia with regard to created things (apatheia - KG 1.37) by becoming “immaterial and wholly dispossessed” during prayer, its “highest activity” (On Prayer 35, 119 and 120).  For the opposite, demonic “insensibility” (anaesthesia), KG 4.85.

̈1,33. [79] Ωσπερ εκαστη τεχνη τρανους αισθησεως αρμοζουσας προς αυτην χρειαν εχει ουτως και ο νους πνευματικης αισθησεως χρειαν εχει προς το διακρινειν τα πνευματικα.

 

 

 I,34. THE sense, naturally by itself, senses sensory things, but the mind [nous] always arises and waits [to ascertain] which spiritual contemplation will give itself as a vision.


Cf KG 2.35 on the five spiritual senses of the nous.  Contemplation and sensation of the nous: KG 2.48 5.58, 5.59.

̈1,34. Αισθησις πεφυκε αισθανεσθαι τα αισθητα· το δε νοητικον παντα καρον εστηκε προσδοκων ητις αν θεωρια πνευματικη διδωι αυτην εις ορασιν.

1.35

 

 I,35. JUST as light, while enabling us to see everything, [itself] needs no light to be seen; so God, while making all things visible, needs no light by which to be known, for he is light. (1Jn 1:5) in His essence.


God is essentially light: (Pseudo?-Basil, Letter 361, v.27-29: “Therefore, if anyone should say that the substance of the Father is light intellectual, eternal, and unbegotten, he will say that the substance of the Only-begotten also is light intellectual, eternal, and unbegotten:” Ὥστε εἰ φῶς νοητόν, ἀΐδιον, ἀγέννητον τὴν τοῦ Πατρὸς οὐσίαν τις λέγοι, φῶς νοητόν, ἀΐδιον, γεννητὸν καὶ τὴν τοῦ Μονογενοῦς οὐσίαν ἐρεῖ.  On the reflection of divine light in the nous cf. KG, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15; Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45 Prayer 75.; Thoughts (Peri.Log.) 17, 39, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.

 1,35. Ωσπερ το φως παντα ημιν αποδεκνυον αλλου φωτος ου δειται προς το θεαθηναι εν αυτωι ουτως ουδε ο θεος αποδεικνυων ημιν παν τι φωτος δειται εις το γνωσθηναι εν αυτωι. αυτος γαρ τηι ουσιαι φως εστι.[
S1: Even as the light, as it makes us see all, does not need another light with which it will be seen, so God as well when he makes everything seen, does not need another light with which he will be known; He, in fact, in his essence,"is light"]

1.36

 

 I,36. THE organ of sense is not the same thing as sensation nor is the one who senses the [same as the thing] sensed. For sense is the power by which we lay hold of matters; the sense organ is the member in which the sense resides; the one who senses is the living being who possesses the senses; the [thing] sensed is what is apprehended by the senses. But it is not thus with the nous, for it was deprived of one of the four. [Greek: Sch 6 on Psalm 113]


Being immaterial, the nous lacks any sense organ, the second item in the list of four. Contemplation and sensation of the nous: KG 2.48, 4.62, 5.58, 5.59.


[FP adds: αἴσθησίς ἐστιν δύναμις καθ' ἣν εἰώθαμεν ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι τῶν ὑλῶν 02.1.2. αἰσθητήριον δὲ τὸ ὄργανον, ἐν ᾧ καθίδρυται αὕτη 02.1.3. αἰσθητικὸν δὲ τὸ ζῷον αὑτὸ τὸ κεκτημένον τὰς αἰσθήσεις 02.1.4. αἰσθητὸν δὲ τὸ πεφυκὸς ταῖς αἰσθήσεσιν ὑποπίπτειν· ὑποπιπτει δὲ ταῖς αἰσθήσεσιν χρῶμα καὶ σχῆμα καὶ ὄγκος καὶ πηλικότης καὶ ἀντιτυπία καὶ ψόφοι καὶ ἀτμοὶ καὶ χυμοί, λειότης, τραχύτης καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα [FP 2.1.1-2.1.4]


1.36  Αἴσθησις μέν ἐστιν ἡ δύναμις καθ' ἣν ἀντιλαμβανόμεθα τῶν ὑλῶν· αἰσθητήριον δὲ τὸ ὄργανον δι' οὗ πέφυκεν αὕτη ἐνεργεῖν· αἰσθητικὸν δὲ αὐτὸ τὸ κεκτημένον τὴν αἴσθησιν· αισθητὸν δὲ τὸ αἰσθήσεσιν ὑποπίπτειν. [Muyl ‘A travers’ p. 89.]


[Οὐτ' αὐτὸν αἴσθησις καὶ αἰσθητήριον, οὐδ' αἰσθητηκόν τε καὶ αἰσθητόν· αἴσθησις μὲν γάρ ἐστιν ἡ δύναμις, καθ' ἣν εἰώθαμεν ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι τῶν αἰσθητῶν· αἰσθητήριον δὲ τὸ ὄργανον ἐν ᾧ καθίδρυται αὕτη· αἰσθητηκὸν δὲ τὸ ζῷον αὐτὸ τὸ κεκτιμένον τὰς αἰσθήσεις· αἰσθητὸν δὲ τὸ πεφυσικῶς ταῖς αἰσθήσεσιν ὑποπίπτειν. [Sch 6 on Psalm 113; Muyld, Evag 10, p. 57]


[S1] Ου ταυτο εστιν αισθησις και αισθητηριον ουδε αισθητκον και αισθητον· η αισθησις εστι δυναμις ηι ειωθαμεν αισθανεσθαι τας υλας· το δε αιστητηριον εστι μελος εν ωι ενεργει η αισθησις· το δε αισθητικον εστι ζων οργανον ο κεκτηναι τα αισθητερια· το δε αισθητον εστιν οτι τοις αισθητηριοις υποκεται. αλλ' ουχ ουτως κα ο νους εν τι των τεσσαρων απεστερηται.

1.37

 

 I,37. SPIRITUAL “sensation” is apatheia of the reasoning soul, produced by the grace of God.


Apatheia facilitates true knowledge of created beings (i.e. sensation): Prak 2.  As above in 1.33 the nous should become spiritually insensible . . .immaterial and wholly dispossessed at the time of prayer (Prayer 119-120)

 1,37. Η πνευματικη αισθησις εστιν απαθεια της λογικης φυσεως παρα θεου χαριζομενη.
[S1 =S2: The spiritual sense is the dispassion of the reasoning soul, which is produced by the grace of God]

1.38

 

 I,38. WE say various things about sleep while awake; but [it is] during sleep that we experience the proof.  It is the same with regard to all the things we hear about God while outside of Him: we will experience the proof of them [once we are] within Him. Cf. Sch 3 On Ps 126.2.

 1,38. Ωσπερ ημεις γρηγορουντες αλλα τινα περι των ενυπνιων λεγομεν ενυπνοι δε γενομενοι πειραι μανθανομεν ουτως οτου αν ποτε ακουωμεν περι του θεου εκτος αυτου οντες οταν εν αυτωι γενωμεθα πειραι αποδεξομεθα. S1: Just as, being awake, we say diverse things about dreams and that, when we are asleep, we learn them  by experience, so all that we learn about God, when we were outside of him, it is when we will have been inside of him that we will receive the demonstration of them  by experience.

139

 

 I,39.  WE had the seeds of virtue [within us] when we were made [in the beginning] - not [the seeds] of vice.  For if we were not receptive of something would we have [within us] all its power?  And since we have no power to cease existing, we do not have [within us] the power of not existing: that is if the powers are qualities and the non-existent not is not a quality.  1.39.Ἀρετῆς μὲν γεγόναμεν ἔχοντες σπέρματα, κακίας δὲ οὔ· οὐ γὰρ εἴ τινος δεκτικοί ἐσμεν, τούτου πάντως καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἔχομεν· ἐπεὶ καὶ μὴ εἶαι δυνάμενοι, τοῦ μὴ ὄντος οὐκ ἔχομεν δύναμιν, εἴπερ αἱ δυνάμεις ποιότητες, τὸ δὲ μὴ ὂν οὐκ ἔστιν ποιότης. [Muyld, Evag 11, p. 57]

Αρετῆς γεγόναμεν σπέρματα, κακίας δὲ οὔ· οὐ γὰρ εἴ τινος δεκτικοί ἐσμεν, τούτου πάντως καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἔχομεν, ἐπεὶ και μὴ εἶναι δυνάμενοι, τοῦ μὴ ὄντος οὐκ ἔχομεν δύναμιν· εἴπερ αἱ δυνάμεις ποιότητες, τὸ δὲ μὴ ὄν οὐκ ἔστι ποιότης. [Hr-nfg 230=E11]


On quality, & non-existence: Thoughts 31.  Evagrius has divided a favorite theme into two kephalaia, KG 1.39 and 1.40.  Here he describes the capacity to exist and to change as “seeds of virtue” that were “implanted” within us from our beginning (cf. Thoughts 31; Praktikos 57; Gnostikos 44 and 45). In addition to four texts in which he discusses this concept in more detail (see note below on 1.40)  the metaphor of “seeds of virtue” recurs frequently in the Scholia on Psalms: Sch.21 on Ps.36.25;  Sch.3 on Ps.125.5sch.3 on Ps.135.6; sch.4 on Ps.136.7; sch.3 on Ps.147.3. [cf. KG 1.24].  Letter 43.2. On non-existence and quality: KG 1.11,2.

[S1]Οτε απαρχης εγενομεθα σπερματα της αρετης πεφυκεν εν ημιν της δε κακιας ου· ου γαρ ει τινος δεκτικοι εσμεν τουτου παντως και την δυναμιν εχομεν επει και μη ειναι δυναμενοι του μη οντος ουκ εχομεν δυναμιν· ειπερ αι δυναμεις ποιοτητες εισι το δε μη ον ουκ εστι ποιοτης· [S1: When we were first made, the seeds of virtue  were found naturally in us, but malice not at all. It is not that, in fact, that to which we are susceptible, has its power also in us, because that, because we can not have been that, the power of  what we are not is not in us, if powers are qualities and what is not is not a quality.]

1.40

 

 I,40. THERE was [a time] when evil did not exist, and there will be [a time] when it no longer exists; but there was never [a time] when virtue did not exist and there will never be [a time] when it does not exist: for the seeds of virtue are indestructible. And I am convinced by the rich man [almost but not completely given over to every evil] who was condemned to hell because of his evil, and who felt compassion for his brothers (Luke 16:19-31). For to have pity is the most beautiful beautiful seed of virtue.


The “imperishable seeds of virtue”, defined in the preceding kephalion and discusses in more detail elsewhere (Sch. 62 on Proverbs 5:14, Peri Logismon 31, and Letters 43.3 and 59.3) allude to the possibility of change and healing after death and thus to the possibility of apokatastasis, universal restoration of all beings to union with God (note, however, that Evagrius never uses this technical term. He invokes the parable of Lazarus and the rich man (Luke 16.20-31), and interprets it as suggesting that the rich man’s suffering in Sheol matured the “seeds of virtue” into repentance and a capacity for mercy.  [cf. also KG 1.24]. See KG 3.9 for possible restoration of the demons, cf. Sch 136 On Prov 14.9Sch 5 On Ps 62.10-11

 1.40 Ἦν ὅτε οὐκ ἦν κακὸν, καὶ ἔσται ὅτε οὐκ ἔσται· οὐκ ἦν δὲ ὅτε οὐκ ἦν ἀρετή, οὐδὲ ἔσται ὅτε οὐκ ἔσται· ἀνεξάλειπτα γὰρ τὰ σπέρματα τῆς ἀρετῆς· Πείθει δέ με . . . καὶ ὁ πλούσιος ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ διὰ κακίαν κρινόμενος καὶ οἰκτείρων τοὺς ἀδελφούς. Τὸ δὲ ἐλεεῖν, σπέρμα τυγχάνει τὸ κάλλιστον τῆς ἀρετῆς. [= scholion 62 On Prov 5:14, pp 152 & 154] Italicized portion is not found in critical edition of Syriac

 For Rich man/Lazarus qv  KG I,40;   Letters 43   & 59; Peri.Log. 65

Muyld, Evag 12, pp. 57-58= Peri.Log. 65; PG 40.1240B : .  ̓͂Ην ὅτε οὐκ ἦν κακία, καὶ ἔσται ὅτε οὐκ ἔσται· οὐκ ἦν δὲ ὅτε οὐκ ἦν ἀρετὴ, οὐ δὲ ἔσται ὅτε οὐκ ἔσται· πείθει δέ με ὁ ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ πλούσιος διὰ κακίαν, καὶ ἐλεῶν τοὺς ἀδελφούς· τὸ δὲ ἐλεεῖν ἀρετή.

[S1] Ην οτε ουκ ην κακια και εσται οτε ουκ εσται· ανεξαλειπτα γαρ τα σπερματα της αρετης·ͅ πειθει δε με και εκεινος ο πλουσιος εν τωι αιδηι δια κακιαν κρινομενος και οικτειρων τους αδελφους· το δε ελεειν σπερμα εστι καλον της αρετης.S1: There was a time when evil did not exist, and there will be a time when it will no longer exist; but there was never a time when virtue did not exist, and there will never be a time when it will not exist. Indestructible, in effect, are the seeds of virtue. I am  also convinced of this by the rich man who was condemned in the Shéol because of his evil and had pity for his brothers; thus to have pity is a beautiful seed of virtue

1.41

 

 I,41. IF death is subsequent to life, and sickness subsequent to health, it is evident that vice is subsequent to virtue. Death and sickness of the soul are evil, and virtue is more ancient than the intermediary.


In light of his meditation on the primordial quality of virtue in the two previous kephalaia, Evagrius concludes that the Aristotelian definition of virtue as a mean/μεσότης between two opposing vices, (KG I.10) is insufficient.  The seeds of virtue do not depend on vice for their definition or existence: rather they precede vice and have existed from the beginning (KG I.40).  As Evagrius has already noted, there is no opposition in God, the first good; (KG 1.1) opposition (evil and vice) arise with creation (KG 1.2)

 1,41. Ει ο θανατος δευτερος της ζωης και η νοσος δευτερα της υγιειας δηλοντι και η κακια δευτερα της αρετης· θανατος γαρ και νοσος της ψυχης εστιν η κακια· η δε αρετη και της μεσοτητος αρχαιοτερα εστι.

S1=S2:  If death is second compared to life, and sickness second compared to health, it is evident that evil is second by comparison to virtue. Death and sickness of the soul, in effect, is evil, and virtue is more ancient also than that which is in the middle.

1.42

 

 I,42.  IT is said that God is [present] where He acts, and where he acts most, there he is most present; And since He acts fully in the reasoning and holy natures, it is therefore in the celestial powers that He is fully present.

Celestial Powers receptive of the Blessed Trinity: KG 2.80;  cf. KG 3.56.76: .


1,42. Ἐκει λέγεται Θεὸς παρεῖναι, ἔνθα καὶ ἐνεργεῖ· ὅπου δὲ μᾶλλον ἐνεργεῖ, μᾶλλον πάρεστιν· ἐνεργεῖ δὲ πλέον ἐν ταῖς οὐρανίαις δυνάμεσιν, πλέον οὖν ἐκεῖσαι πάρεστιν. [Muyld, Evag 13, p. 58] Muyl. A travers p. 89]:It is said that God is where he acts; and where he acts most, there he is present most: but he acts most in the noetic powers, [therefore] he is most [present] in them

1,42.Ἐκεῖ λέγεται παρεῖναι ὁ Θεὸς, ὅπου ἐνεργεῖ· καὶ μᾶλλον παρεῖναι, ὅπου πλέον ἐνεργεῖ· ἐνεργῶν δὲ πλέον ἐν ταῖς νοεραῖς δυνάμεσιν, ἐν αὐταῖς ἐστι πλὲον.  


[S1] Ενθα λεγεται ο θεος αιναι οπου ενεργει και απου μαλλον ενεργει ενθα μαλλον εγγιζει· ενεργει δε μαλλον εν ταις λογικαις και αγιαις φυσεσι· ͅ εν ταις ουρανιαις δυναμεσιν αρα μαλλον εγγιζει.

1.43

 

 I,43. GOD is in every place and he is not in a place; He is in every place for He is in all that exists by his manifold wisdom .(Eph 3:10). He is not in a place because He is not [one] among other [beings].


Cf. KG 2.213.115.84.

 1,43. Ὁ Θεὸς καὶ πανταχοῦ πάρεστιν καὶ οὐδαμοῦ· πανταχοῦ μὲν, ὅτι πᾶσιν ἐνυπάρχει τοῖς γεγονόσιν· οὐδαμοῦ δε, διότι ἕτερος αὐτῶν ἐστιν. [Muyld, Evag 14, p. 58]

[S1]Ο θεος εν παντι τοπωι εστι και ουκ εν τοπωι εστι· εν παντι τοπωι ως εν παντι γεγονοτι ων δια την πολυποικιλον σοφιαν, ουκ εν τοπωι δε ως ουκ ων των γεγονοτων. S1: God is everywhere, and He is not somewhere; He is everywhere, because everything that has been produced is by His "wisdom full of variety"; but He is not somewhere, because He is not from among beings

1.44

 

 I,44. IF the kingdom of the heavens is known by what is contained and that which contains, so torment will be known by the opposite of these things.


Kingdom of Heaven” as apatheia: Prak.2 Torment: KG 1.56, 1.57, 1.72, 3.18, 5.5)

 1,44. [87] Ει η βασιλεια των ουρανων εν τωι παντων προυπαρχοντι τε και πααν οριζοντι γιγνωσκεται, και ο βασανισμος των νοητων εν τωι εναντιωι γιγνωσκεται.S1: If the kingdom of heaven is known by what came before everything and what contains everything, the torment also of those who will be judged will be known by what is opposed

1.45

 

 I,45. THERE is nothing among incorporeal [beings] that has power in bodies; for our soul [nous?] is incorporeal.


KG 4.624.81.  Cf Prak 3552.  On the incorporeality and function of the nous: Prayer 119; cf KG 1.741.771.811.842.112.29, 2.342.352.452.48,  2.562.833.63.123.133.15, etc.

 1,45. Ουεν των ασωματων δυναμει εστιν εν τοις σωμασι· ασωματος δε εστιν ο νους ημων οτε αφομοιουται τωι θεωι.S1: There is nothing among the bodiless which is in power in bodies; and bodiless is our nous, when it renders itself similar to God

1.46

 

 I,46. EVERYTHING potential in bodies is also naturally in them in action; they are connatural with those from whom they come. But the nous is free of [both] form and matter.


Distinction between potentiality and activity, cf. KG 1.241.55. [& corruptibility/destruction: KG 2.33]  On the incorporeality and function of the nous: Prayer 119; cf KG 1.741.771.811.842.112.29, 2.342.352.452.48,  2.562.833.63.123.133.15, etc.  On the soul as material, fallen nous, KG 3.28.

 1,46. ΑΑν κατα δυναμιν ͅ ηι εν τοις σωμασι ενεργειαι κταται, και ομοφυη εστι των παρ ων ενεγετο· των δε τυπων και της υλης απηλευθερωται ο νους ο ἀποβλεπων εις τον θεον.S1: All that is in power in the body, it possesses in act, and they are of the same nature as those from which they derive. But the nous which contemplates God is liberated from imprint and matter

1.47

 

 I,47. NOTHING in power in the soul is able to leave it through action and then to subsist independently, for [the soul] was by its nature made to exist in bodies.


As above, the embodied soul is a fallen incorporeal nous: KG 3.28. Cf Prak 23552.

 1,47. [89] Ουδενος ου η δυναμις εστιν τηι ψυχηι ουτως και η ενεργεια πεφυκεν εν αυτηι τωι γαρ αυτεξουσιωι αυτης κατορθουνται και η δυναμις του θεου τελειοι αυτην.S1: There is nothing which could be in power in the soul which similarly could be naturally in it also in act; it is by liberty, in effect, that it grows and it is the power of God which perfects it

1.48

 

 I,48. EVERYTHING linked to bodies is associated with those who engender them; but nothing from them is linked to the soul.


Evagrius addresses the question of the extent to which the human person is influenced by inheritance.  From our parents we receive everything that pertains to our bodies;  but our forebears are not responsible for what we do with and to our souls.  Cf KG 1.81.9.

 1,48. Οι τυποι οι οντες εν τοις σωμασιν οι αυτοι εισιν εν τοις γεννησασιν αυτα· η δε ψυχη κατα το αυτεξουσιον το δοθεν αυτηι υπο του θεου τυποι αυτην καθως εθελει η εις το αφομοιωθναι τωις κτηνεσιν.S1: The imprints which are in the bodies similarly exist in those which have engendered them. But the soul, by the liberty which was given it by God, imprints its being as it wishes, either to render itself similar to God, or to render itself similar to the animals

1.49

 

 I,49. THE Monad is not moved in itself: rather, it is moved by the receptivity of the nous which through inattentiveness turns its face away [from the Monad], and which through this deprivation begets ignorance.


Cf. note on KG 1.10 and 1.51 on the kinesis / movement. Cf. Schol 10 on Eccl 2.11 and 12 on Eccl 2.22  Cf. Origen, De Prin. 2.9.2.  On the soul as a material, fallen nous, KG 3.28.

 1,49. Η μεν μονας ιδιως ου κινειται κινειται δε εν τωι δεκτικωι του νοος ος εν τηι αμελειαι αυτου αποστρεφει το προσωπον αυτου απ' αυτης και δια την αποστερησιν αυτης γενναι την αγνωσιαν. [S1 =S2: It is not the Unity which apart from itself puts itself in motion; but it is put in motion by the receptivity of the nous, which, by its negligence, turns away its face and, by the fact of being deprived of it, engenders ignorance ]

1.50

 

 I,50. EVERYTHING that exists, exists through the knowledge of God; but among beings some are first and some are second. [spiritual] Knowledge is older than first beings; and the movement is older than second beings.


Cf. KG 1.87. The knowledge for which all beings long (KG 1.3) was also the means of their creation: cf. KG 2.2; 3.26.  On first and second beings: 1.542.64.  On second beings: KG 1.611.62 1.653.83.613.685.87.

 1,50. [91] Παν γεγονος δια την του θεου γνωσιν γεγονε· αλλα των γεγονοτων τα μεν εστι προτερα, τα δε δευτερα· των πρωτων γεγονοτων αρχαιοτερα εστιν η πνευματικη γνωσις, των δε δευτερων αρχαιοτερα η κινησις.

[S1 =S2: All that was produced was produced for the knowledge of God; but among beings, some are firsts, and others seconds. Older than the first beings is (spiritual) knowledge, and (older) than the second beings is movement]

1.51

 

 I,51. THE movement is the cause of evil but virtue is destructive of evil. However, virtue is the daughter of names and modes, and the cause of these is the movement.


On creation(s) and fall (movement/kinesis): cf. KG 1.10 & note; 1.50; 3.22; 5.24; 6.19; 6.20; 6.85.   Virtue, the means of reunion, is also the fruit of the fall, as the midpoint between two possible vices; but see KG 1.41.

 1,51. Η κινησις εστιν αιτια της κακιας, εξαλειπτικον δε της κακιας εστιν η αρετη τα δε ονοματα της αρετης εν τροποις της πολιτειας· αιτια τουτων η κινησις εστιν. [S1: Movement is the cause of evil, and the destroyer of evil is virtue; but the names of virtue are in the modes of conduct, and the cause of these is movement]

1.52

 

 I,52. WHEN the knowledge of those who are first in their administration and who are second by their creation will be in the principles, only then will those who are first in their administration receive the knowledge of the Trinity.


Angels are second beings but first in knowledge because of their lesser degree of fall from unity with the One. Cf. KG 1.27 and 1.74.  Christ alone has substantial knowledge of the Trinity. Cf. KG 3.2 - 3On first and second beings: 1.542.64.  On second beings: KG 1.611.62 1.653.83.613.685.87.

 1,52 [93] Οταν η αληθινη γνωσις εν τοις πρωτοις γενομενοις γενηται τοτε και αυτοι χαριτι της της αγιας Τριαδας γνωσεως αξιωθησονται.

 

[S1: When the true knowledge will be in those which are first by their genesis, then those also will obtain by grace also the knowledge of the holy Trinity.]

1.53

 

 I,53. DEMONS who fight against the nous are called birds; those who trouble indignation (thumos) [are called] [wild] beasts; those who move desire (epithumia) [are called] cattle [beasts].


cf. Thoughts (Peri.log.) 18; Eulogius 4: block the indignation of the beast ἐμφράξῃς τοῦ θηρὸς τὸν θυμόν cf. Sch 9 On Ps 73.19: beasts are the demons that arouse beastly indignation.   Εἰ θηρία λέγεται τὰ δαιμόνια, ἐν δὲ τοῖς θηρίοις ἐπικρατεῖ ὁ θυμὸς.  Cf. Prayer 91; Thoughts (Peri Log) 27.
[For birds (πετηνά) , beasts (θηρία ) cattle (κτήνη ), cf. Gen. 7.14 -creation; & Gen. 8.9 - out of ark]

 1.53. Τὰ μὲν τῷ νοῒ μαχόμενα δαιμόνια καλοῦνται πετηνά, θηρία δὲ τὰ τὸν θυμὸν ἐκταράσσοντα, κτήνη δὲ ὀνομάζεται τὰ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν κινοῦντα. [Hr-nfg 230=E4]


[S1=S2] Το δαιμονια τα τωι νωι μαχομενα πετεινα ονομάζεται θηρια δε τα τον θυμον ταρασσοντα κτηνη δε ονομαζεται τα την επιθυμιαν δελεαζοντα.

[S1=S2: The demons which fight with the nous  are called birds, animals those which trouble thumos,  and beasts those which excite epithumia

1.54

 

 I,54. LIMITLESS is the fullness of those who are first in their administration, but for emptiness limits have been set. (Phil 2:7)  And while second beings are coextensive with emptiness, they will rest when the fullness causes the receptive to approach immaterial knowledge.


cf. KG 1.50, 1.52, Limit(s): 1.71, 3.37, 3.63, 4.46, 6.36Prak 84 , 87.  “Immaterial knowledge”: KG 2.63, 3.15, 3.17.

 1,54. Απεραντον εστι το πληρωμα των πρωτων γεγονοτων περατι δε περιγεγραπται η ματαιοτης· τα δε δευτερα γεγονοτα συμπαρεκτεινεται τηι ματαιοτητι. αναπαυσεται δε οταν η τελεια πληροφορια τους δεκτικους αυτης αγαγηι προς την της μονοειδους αγιας Τριαδος γνωσιν. S1: Without end is the fullness of those who are first by their genesis, and within ends is the emptiness contained . The second beings are coextensive with emptiness , and they will rest when the perfect fullness will lead those who are receptive of it toward the knowledge of the Unity of the Holy Trinity.

1.55

 

 I,55. ONLY those who are first in their creation will be delivered from the corruption [inherent] in action; but none among beings [will be delivered] from the corruption [inherent] in potential.


On first and second beings; KG 1.50.  Distinction between potentiality and activity, cf. KG 1.24, 1.46 [& corruptibility/destruction: KG 2.33]

 1,55. [95] Οι πρωτοι γενομενοι ηλευθερωνται μονον της φθορας ενεργειας τελειωθησεται δε η των παντων ελευθερια εαν θεληι ο των παντων κυριος. S1: Those who are first by their genesis will be delivered only from the act of corruption; but the deliverance from all will be achieved when the will of the Lord of all will have occurred

1.56

 

 I,56. THE good are the cause of knowledge and torment, but the evil only of torment. Torment: KG 1.56, 1.57, 1.72, 3.18, 5.5)

 1,56. Οι μεν αγαθοι αιτια εισι της γνωσεως τε και του βασανισμου οι δε κακοι μονου του βασανισμου.S1=S2:  The good will be cause of knowledge and of torment, and the bad47 of torment only

1.57

 

 I,57. MEN fear Sheol, while demons fear the abyss; but there exist [beings] even more cruel, such as the indescribable serpents.


On the terrible subterranean demons: KG 4.33.  In his Scholia on Psalms Evagrius frequently mentions merciless “subterranean demons”, frightening even to the other demons whom they torture: Sch 1 On Ps 55.2Sch 5 On Ps 62.10-11Sch 10 On Ps 68.15Sch 8 On Ps 70.20Sch 13 On Ps 76.13(2)Sch 8 On Ps 103.9Sch 5 On Ps 118.7; See esp. Sch 2 On Ps 134.6;  Cf. Prayer 104.

 1,57. Οι ανθρωποι τον αιδην φοβουνται τα δε δαιμονια τον αβυσσον -- φριττει.

1.58

 

 I,58. ONE [kind of] death has birth as its first cause; another is from the saints against those who do not live justly; and the mother of the third is forgiveness. And if “mortal” [means] one who is by nature made to be freed from the body to which he is joined, than “immortal” must [mean] one who is not naturally made for that. For all who have been joined to bodies will necessarily be liberated from them.


Death may be understood of the body, or more positively as death to sin: Cf. KG 1.634.65; Prak  6, 18, 36, 52, 95

 1,58.  Θνητόν ἐστι τὸ πεφυκὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ συνεζευγμένου σώματος λυέσθαι· ἀθάνατον δὲ ὃ μὴ διαλυέσθαι πέφυκεν· πάντα γὰρ ἀναγκαίως τὰ συνδεθέντα σώμασιν καὶ λυθήσεται ποτέ. [Muyld, Evag 15, p. 58]

FRB - Των θανατων των μεν αιτια εστιν η πρωτη κρισις των δε αιτια η χαρις -- η απελευθερουσα του δε τριτου θανατου αιτια εστιν η αφεσις η δι' ελεος· αθανατος δε εστι ωι ουδεν τουτων συμβαινει.S1: Among deaths, some  are caused by the first condemnation. For others that cause is liberating grace; and the cause of the third death is remission that is done through mercy. But immortal are those for whom none of these occur

 

 

 I,59. JUST as light and shadow are accidents of air, so virtue and vice, as well as knowledge and ignorance, are united with the rational soul.


Virtue pre-exists, but can also be regarded as a consequence of the fall: KG 1.41, 1.51

 1,59. [99] Ωσπερ το φως και ο σκοτος ͅ τυχικα το αερος ουτως η αρετη τε και η κακια η γνωσς τε και η αγνοια της λογικης ψυχης προυπαρχουσων εν αυτηι δυο της τε αρετης και της γνωσεως.S1:  Just as light and shadow are accidental things of the air, the same for the reasonable soul virtue and evil, knowledge and ignorance, virtue and knowledge being both first in it

1.60

 

 I,60. IF today they have received the wise steward in their homes, it is clear that yesterday he sat and modified their bills. (Lk 16:1-8)  However, he was called wise because he gave more than he was receiving.


Christ is the good steward who remits sin and freely gives.  Evagrius combines “If today”: Hebrews 3:15; Ps. 95.8 (“If today you hear his voice, harden not your hearts”) - where “today” is understood as the day of judgment - together with Luke 12:42-43, a parable concerning the return of the Son of God to the earth.  Contrast with the iniquitous steward: KG 5.33, To Monks, 74.

 1,60. Ει σημερον δεχονται τον φρονιμον οικονομον εν ταις οικιαις αυτων δηλοντι εχθες εκαθισε και ελογισατο τα μυστηρια αυτων· αλλα γαρ φρονιμος ωνομασται οτι των του κυριου υπαρχοντων αφιει τοις αυτου. [S1: If today they receive the well advised accountant in their houses it is obvious that yesterday they sat down and counted their bonds. However, he was called well advised because he gave to his colleagues part of the assets of the property.]

1.61

 

 I,61. THERE are no second beings receptive of knowledge, nor any first beings who were first in a place.


On first and second beings; KG 1.50.  Cf. KG 155. Beings created after the fall/kinesis (second beings) are not naturally receptive of the gnosis that preceded their existence (i.e. of God).  Before the fall, first beings were not spatially confined (in a place).

 1,61. [103] Ουδεν των δευτερων γεγονοτων ου δεκτικου της γνωσεως και ουδεν των πρωτων ο τοπωι περιεχεται.  S1: There are none of the second beings which would not be 49 susceptible of the knowledge, and none of the first beings which would be contained in a place

1.62

 

 I,62. KNOWLEDGE is said to be in a place when one who is receptive of it is united to one of the second beings, who is accurately and principally said to be in a place.


On first and second beings; KG 1.50.  Cf. KG 155. Knowledge is spatially confined (“in a place”) when it concerns second beings: namely, embodied, material beings, given bodies after the fall for their restitution.

 1,62. Η γνωσις εν τοπωι λεγεται ειναι ει τοις των κτισεων νοημασιν εμπεριφερεται ανευ τοπου δε ει εν τηι αγιαι Τριαδι εξισταται. S1: Knowledge is said to be in a place, when it frequents the intellections of creatures, but in no place when it admires the Holy Trinity

1.63

 

 I,63. WHETHER the logikoi exist always or do not exist depends on the will of the Creator; but whether they are immortal or mortal depends on their own will, as does [the question] whether they are joined or not joined to one thing or another.


Whether one receives a body subject to death  in the next judgement/krisis depends on choices made during life and on the will of Christ/God: KG 3.38, 3.47, Sch 8 On Ps 1.5(1) Cf. Sch.5 On.Ps 118.7. cf. KG 2.31, 2.59, 2.75, 3.2, To physically separate soul from body belongs only to God; but the logikoi may  choose to separate their souls from created things by ascetical practice Praktikos 52.

 1,63. Το γενεσθαι τους λογικους και το μη γενεσθαι προς τωι του θεου θεληματι εστι, το δε γενεσθαι θανητους η αθανατους επ' αυτοις εστιν.

[S1 =S2: Whether the logikoi would be or would not be, that is the affair of the will of the Creator; but that they would be mortal or immortal, that is the affair of their will]

 

 

 I,64. THE true life of the logikoi is their natural activity, while their death is an activity against nature. But if such death is so mortal as to naturally extinguish true life, who among beings is immortal? For every reasoning nature is susceptible to opposition.


 True life (“according to nature”) vivifies even death: KG 5.20

 1,64. Ζωὴ ὄντως ἐστὶν ἡ κατὰ φύσιν ἐνέργεια τῶν ἐμψυχομένων· θάνατος δὲ ἡ παρὰ φύσιν. [Muyld, Evag 16, p. 58]


FRB - [105] Η αληθινη των λογικων ζωη εστιν η δια πνευματος αυτων εργασια· ο δε θανατος αυτωη εστι πραξις παρα την φυσιν.


[S1: All reasonable nature, in fact, is susceptible of an opposition.50 The true life of the logikoi is their activity in spirit, and their death is the activity against nature.]

1.65

 

 I,65. IN the knowledge of those who are second by their creation various worlds are constituted and indescribable battles take place. But in the Unity nothing like this occurs: it is unspeakable peace and there are only the naked noes that constantly quench their insatiability, if according to the word of our Savior, the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to Christ. (John 5:22). 


Two interpretations are possible,and both may be intended. The citation from Jn 5,22 recalls Sch. 275 on Prov. 24.22 which describes the judgment (krisis) whereby  God creates “an age/world which distributes to each of the reasoning beings a body corresponding to its state.” However the  logikoi can also “create worlds” within their nous from richly diverse knowledge (KG 5.12 and 5.81). In this kephalaion the tumultuous conflicts within these worlds are contrasted with the peace and longing of naked noes (KG 3.6) in the world to come.  On unquenchable desire for God (epektasis) see KG 1.71On first and second beings; KG 1.50.  Cf. KG 155.

 1,65. Εν αυξησει των νοηματων των κτισεων πονοι εισι και πολεμοι· η δε της αγιας Τριαδος θεωρια ειρηνη και ησυχια αρρητος.

[S1: In the growth of the intellections of the creatures there are works and combats. But in contemplation of the Holy Trinity it is peace and an ineffable quietude.]

 

 

 I,66. VIRTUES are said to be in front of us, in the direction where we have the senses; while vices are behind us, on the side where we do not have senses. For we are commanded to flee fornication (1 Cor 6:18)  and pursue  hospitality. (Rom 12:13)


Underlying this kephalaion is common moral teaching regarding progress in the virtues, prokope (moving forward). Cf. Origen, Commentary on the Song of Songs 2.5; Homilies on Numbers 23.2.4; Peri Archon 1.8.4. Evagrius combines two hortatory sentences from different letters of Paul, the first continuing to identify the body as the temple of the Holy Spirit, and therefore to purify it of vice; and the second commanding readers to “share in the needs of the saints, and pursue hospitality (philoxenia)” See Prak 66, on progress (and in KG 1.67,)

 1,66. Αι αρεται ενωπιον ημων λεγονται ειναι εναντον των αισθησεων αυτων ορατικων, οπισω ημων δε λεγονται ειναι αι κακιαι διοτι εν σκοτωι πραττονται· κελευομεθα φυγειν την πορνειαν και διωκαιν την φιλοξενιαν. {cf. Rom 12.13}


Ἔμπροσθεν ἡμῶν λέγονται εἶναι αἱ ἀρεταὶ, ὄπισθεν δὲ αἱ κακίαι· διὸ προστασσόμεθα φεύγειν μὲν τὴν πορνείαν, τὴν δὲ φιλοξενίαν διώκειν. [grc-PG12]

[S1: The virtues are said to be before us, facing the senses which see them; but it is behind us that are said to be the bad actions, because they are accomplished in the shadows.  We are ordered, in fact, to "flee fornication" and to "pursue hospitality".]

1.67

 

 I,67. WHO can know the composition of the world and the activity of the elements? And who can understand the composition of this organ of the soul? And who can determine how one is joined to the other, in what their dominion consists, and how they participate with one another in such a way that the praktike becomes a chariot for the reasoning soul, which strives to attain the knowledge of God?


Organon (instrument) of the soul: KG 2.48, 2.80, 3.20, 4.49. On the pathetikon (part of the soul subject to passion) as the chariot of the nous:  Plato, Phaedrus 246a-254e

 1,67. [107] Τις εγνω την τουκοσμου τουτου συστασιν και την τω στοιχειων ενεργειαν και την εργασιαν του οργανου τουτου πως δια την των εντολων τηρησιν αρμα γενομενον υψουται αναλημψει πνευματικηι προς την αγιαν Τριαδα. 

[S1: Who will know the sustasis of this world, the activity of the elements and the practice of this instrument, how it will become a chariot by the practice of the commandments and will raise itself up by a spiritual ascension toward the Holy Trinity.]

1.68

 

 I,68. IN angels nous and fire predominate, but in human beings epithumia and earth, and among demons thumos and air. It is said that the third approaches  intermediaries through the nostrils, while the first [approach] the second through the mouth.


Fire predominates in angels: KG 2.29. 2.51, 2.72, 3.9.  In demons, ignorance, freezing cold, thumos, and water KG  6.25; .Sch. 60 on Prov. 5.9. Thoughts (Peri.log) 33.   On the respective functions and physical effects of demons and angels: cf. Prak 24 & 76; Ant.4.22

 1,68. Εν τοις αγιοις αγγελοις περισσεια του νοος εστιν εν δε τοις ανθρωποις περισσεα της επιθυμιας· εν δε τοις δαιμοσι περισσεια του θυμου· λεγουσι δε οι πατερες οτι οι πρωτοι προς τους μεσους δια στοματος πλησιαζουσιν οι δε τελευταιοι προς τους μεσους δια των ρινω. [S1

[S1: Among the holy angels there is a predominance of the nous,  among the humans, predominance of the  épithumia, and among the demons predominance of the thumos. The Fathers say that the first approach the intermediaries by the mouth, and the last the intermediaries by the nostrils]

 

 

 I,69. ONE who excels in knowledge has one after him, while one who excels in ignorance has none.


The gnostikos, not the sinner, is a teacher who instructs and ministers providence to those who come after: KG 6.76.

 Ὁ εἰς γνώσιν ἐλθὼν, ἔχει τὸν μετ' αὐτόν· ὁ εἰς ἄγνοιαν ἐλθὼν, οὐκ ἔχει τὸν μετ' αὐτόν·[Mu1932]


1,69. [109] Ο πρωτευων εν τηι γνωσει εχει τον μετ' αυτον ο δε πρωτευων εν τηι αγνοιαι ουκ εχει. [S1 =S2: The one who leads in knowledge has someone after him; but he who leads in ignorance has none.]

1.70

 

 I,70. WITH God is said to be: first, the one who knows the Holy Trinity; and next after him one who contemplates the logoi concerning the noetic [beings]; third, then, is one who also sees the incorporeal beings; and then fourth is one who understands the contemplation of the ages; while one who has attained apatheia of his soul is justly to be accounted fifth.


Cf KG 1.274.86 Prak. 32, Same ranking of the five types of contemplation: Sch 2 on Prov. 1.1. The previous kephalaion establishes the extremes of knowledge and ignorance; this kephalaion describes levels of  knowledge in descending order. The first and highest level is theoria theologike; the second, third and fourth are theoria physike; the fifth is not knowledge, but a subject who has attained the apatheia that makes the ascending order possible.

 1,70 μετὰ θεοῦ λέγεται εἶναι, πρῶτος μὲν ὁ τὴν ἁγίαν γινώσκων Τριάδα, καὶ μετ' αὐτὸν ὁ τοὺς λόγους τοὺς περὶ τῶν νοητῶν θεωρῶν, τρίτος δὲ πάλιν ὁ καὶ αὐτὰ τὰ ἀσώματα βλέπων, καὶ πάλιν τέταρτος ὁ τὴν θεωρίαν ἐπιστάμενος τῶν αἰώνων· ὁ δὲ τὴν τῆς ψυχῆς ἀπάθειαν κεκτημένος, πέμπτος ἂν συγκαταχθείη δικαίως . = scholion 15 on Psalm 72:23 cf. Pitra 72:23, vol. 3, p.96): [v.=72.23.  καὶ ἐγὼ διαπαντὸς μετὰ σοῦ.]

1.71

 

 I,71. THE end of natural knowledge is the holy Unity, but unknowing [or incomprehensibility?] has no end; for as it is said, there is no limit to his greatness. (Ps 144.3)


Contemplation of the Trinity is unlimited: KG 2.11 Sch 2 On Ps 144:3. On unquenchable desire for God see KG 1.65. Evagrius echoes Gregory of Nyssa's doctrine of epektasis: eternal straining forward towards the God whose goodness is without limits (Greg.Nys. Life of Moses, 7-8)

 1,71. [111] Περας της των φυσεων γνωσεων γνωσεως η της αγιας μοναδος γνωσις εστι· περας δε τωι ακαταληπτωι καθως λεγουσιν οι πατερες ουδεν κατα το γεγραμμενον· -- οια εστιν εξευρεσις {τελος̣} της φρονησεως αυτου

[S1: The end of the knowledge of nature is the knowledge of holy Unity; but to incomprehensibility, as the Fathers say, there is no end, as it is written: "There is no limit to His intelligence".]

1.72

 

 I,72. THE Lord takes pity on those to whom he gives spiritual knowledge if the just walk in the light, but the foolish in darkness. (Eccl 2:14). But the Lord also pities the foolish, in that he does not torment him immediately, but rather impels him from evil towards virtue.


Angels and gnostikoi as means by which God impels from vice to virtue: KG 6.24, 6.76; Gnostikos 48.. Torment: KG 1.56, 1.57, 1.72, 3.18, 5.5

 1,72. Τουτον ελεει ο κυριος ωι γνωσιν πνευματικην διδωσι διοτι γεγραπται ο δικαιος εν φωτι περιπατει ο δε ασεβης εν σκοτωι.  ελεει δε ο κυριος -- αει τον ασεβη εν τωι μη εφαπαξ βασανιζειν αυτον αλλα διδοναι καιρον το μετανοειν -- και ζην {σωθηναι}. [S1: The Lord has pity on those to whom he gives spiritual knowledge, because it is written: "The just walk in the light and the insane in the shadows". But the Lord has pity also on the insane, in that it is not right away that He torments him  but He fixes for him  a space in order that he converts and lives.]

1.73

 

 I,73. WHILE life of man consists of holy knowledge, the mercy of God is the contemplation of beings. Many of the wise of this world have promised us knowledge, but the mercies of God are better than life. (Ps 62:4)


Philosophical knowledge of this world is inferior to contemplation of beings, cf. KG 1.70.  Evagrius often uses knowledge and contemplation interchangeably: cf. Irenaeus, The life of man is the vision of God: Vita hominis visio Dei:Adv.Haer.4.20.7

 1,73 ἡ μὲν ζωὴ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁγία γνῶσις ὑπάρχει· τὸ δὲ ἔλεος κυρίου ἡ τῶν γεγονότων θεωρία ἐστίν· πολλοὶ δὲ ἡμῖν τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου σοφοὶ καθυπέσχοντο γνώσεις, ἀλλὰ κρεῖσσον τὸ ἔλεος κυρίου ὑπὲρ ζωάς.  = Sch 2 on Psalm 62:4

[Ps.62:4. Ὅτι κρεῖσσον τὸ ἔλεός σου ὑπὲρ ζωὰς]

1.74

 

 I,74. THE light of the nous is divided into three:

knowledge of the adorable and holy Trinity;

and the incorporeal nature created by it;

and the contemplation of beings.


Evagrius undertook a journey in the company of Ammonius to consult with John of Lycopolis (or of the Thebaid) on the question whether the inner “light of the nous” perceived during contemplation is a reflection of the divine light, or whether  it arises from the inherent luminosity of the nous itself (Antirrhetikos 6.16). John did not commit himself to a definitive answer; however, in this kephalaion Evagrius suggests three possible sources of the light: [1] reflection (“knowledge”) of or “mixture with” the divine light (cf. KG 1.35, 2.29; 3.52; Skemm.27); [2] the incorporeal nature of the nous (KG 3.44); [3] the act of contemplating beings (KG 5.15; 1.81). Additional sources on the light of the nous: cf KG 1.35, 1.74;  1.81, 2.29, 3.44, 3.52, 5.15, ; Prak 64; Gnost 45; Sc.Prov.258; On Prayer 74 & 75.; Thoughts 17, 39, 40 & 42; Skem 24;  23; 25 Letter 39.5.

 1,74. το του νοος φως διακρινεται {μεριζεται} τρισσως εις την γνωσιν της αγιας και προσκυνητης Τριαδος
   και εις την φυσιν την τε ασωματον και ενσωματον
    και εις την συνεσιν των φυσεων των κτισματων
.

[S1: The light of the nous is divided in three, that is:
     in the knowledge of the adorable and holy Trinity,
     in incorporeal and corporeal nature,
     and in the understanding of the natures of creatures]

1.75

 

 I,75. IF “the crown of justice” is holy knowledge, and the gold, moreover, that contains the stones denotes the worlds that have been or will be, the contemplation of corporeal and incorporeal nature is therefore the crown that is placed by the “just judge” (2Tim 4:8) upon the head of those who fight.


Crown designates knowledge: Sch 12 On Ps 5.13Sch. 7 On Prov. 1.9 Contemplation of worlds: esp KG 4.30; also KG 2.22.172.592.652.742.752.853.234.304.394.434.584.895.35.4,

 1,75. Ει ο στεφανος της δικαιοσυνης γνωσις της αγιας Τριαδος εστι -- δηλοντι εν τωι του δρομου τελει αγιοι αυτωι στεφανωθησονται.

1.77

 

 I,76. IT is not to the knowledge hidden in objects that unknowing [ignorance] is opposed, but rather to the knowledge of the noetic forms of the objects. For unknowing [ignorance] is not naturally found in corporeal nature.


On unknowing, see above on 1,71.  In the positive sense of unknowing as turning (arising) from complexity to unity, unknowingis not natural in corporeal, complex nature.

 1,76. Ου τηι αληθινηι γνωσει τηι αποκεκρυμμενηι εν ταις φυσεσιν αντικειται η αγνοια αλλ' η τηι των παιδων {νηπιων} γνωσει· εαν δε τελειωθωσιν οι παιδες νικησουσιν την αγνοιαν.

[S1: It is not to the true knowledge which is hidden in the natures that ignorance is made the opposite, but to the knowledge of children. But, when children have become adults, they will win over ignorance.

1.77

 

 I,77. THE second nature is the sign of the body,

and the first [nature is] the [sign] of the soul.

And the [sign of the] nous is

the Christ who is united to the knowledge of the Unity.

 1,77. Νους παντων των λογικων των τηι ομοιωσει του κτιστου αυτων τετυπωμενων Χριστος εστιν ο σωτηρ ημων και αυτος τελειωσει αυτους τηι της αγιας Τριαδος γνωσει.

[S1 THE nous of all the logikoi which are imprinted in the resemblance of their Creator is Christ our Savior; and it is He who  perfects them in the knowledge of the holy Trinity.]



On first and second beings: 1.542.64.  On second beings: KG 1.611.62 1.653.83.613.685.87. Here Evagrius juxtaposes two parallel models of mystical ascent. One is human (body / soul / nous) and and concerns spiritual anthropology; the other is cosmic (second nature / first nature / Christ) and encourages reflection on eschatological destiny. The threefold anthropological model of body, soul, and nous, is a sequence that illustrates the hierarchical ordering of different levels of creation, perceptible both in the exterior world of cosmic history and the interior world of human psychology.  The second, parallel set of draws attention to the origin and destiny of the nous: second (fallen) nature; first (unfallen) nature; and Christ who enjoys “knowledge of the Unity”. Cf. KG 2.5. A similar analogy is found in Evagrius’ Letter to Melania: ‘And just as the [human] nous  acts in the body through the mediation of the soul, in the same way the Father acts through the mediation of the “soul” [i.e. the Son and the Spirit] in his “body”, which is the [human] nous.’ Letter to Melania (Letter 64) 15, Frankenberg, p. 514. 

This kephalaion has been cited as evidence that Evagrius supported the christology condemned in the Anathemas Against Origin issued by the Emperor Justinian in 543 and 553.  This heretical christology allegedly identified Christ with a primordial unfallen nous that was united to the Divine Logos at the incarnation.  (A. Guillaumont, Les ‘Kephalaia Gnostica’, d’Evagre le Pontique et l’histoire de l’Origénisme chez les Grecs et chez les Syriens, Patristica Sorbonensia 5, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1962, p. 152)

1.78

 

 I,78. THE first renunciation is voluntary abandonment of the objects of this world for the sake of the knowledge of God.

 1.78. Ἀπόταξις μὲν πρώτη ἐστὶ κατάλειψις κοσμικῶν πραγμάτων ἑκούσιος τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ γνώσεως ἕνεκεν· [Hr-nfg 230=E5]

[S1] [117] Η μεν πρωτη αποταγη του κοσμου εν ψυχηι γενομενη εστι το απολειπειν τινα αγαθηι προαιρεσει τα του κοσμου τουτου πραγματα δια την του θεου γνωσιν.

[S1: The first renunciation of the world, which is done in the soul, is such: that with good will one abandons the things of this world for the science of God.



=Thoughts/Peri.Log. 26.19-25. The following three kephalaia, 1.78-80 together with 1.85, occur together in narrative form at the end of chapter 26 of Evagrius’ On Thoughts (Peri Logismon).  Evagrius often depicts spiritual progress as triads, here consisting of three successive renunciations: first, of worldly things; second, of vice or evil; and third, of ignorance.  Antecedents of this threefold ascent are found in sources Evagrius knew, including Philo, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Letters of Antony.  For Philo the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are allegories of the classical pedagogical triad: teaching, nature, and moral-ascetical practice (The Life of Moses, 1.76).  Clement described ascent from ethics to the contemplation of nature, and then to theologiké, or metaphysics (Stromateis 1.28.176, 1-2).  Origen depicted the three biblical wisdom books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs as exemplars of the three progressive stages of purification, discernment, and love (Commentary on the Song of Songs 3.16). These he associated with the classical ascent from ethics (moral practice) to physics (nature); and finally to epoptics (contemplation) (Comm.SOS 3.1-3).

     Antony the Great describes three “repentances” or “gates” corresponding to three kinds of souls: first, those who like Abraham eagerly renounce everything, repent, and follow Christ; second, those who like David in the Psalms repent only after hearing of the divine punishments promises; and third, those who repent only when afflicted by hardships and trials (Letter 1). The reader of the text is being invited to meditate simultaneously on two parallel symbols of spiritual ascent. The first is anthropological and consists of the threefold ‘signs’ of body, soul, and nous

From the perspective of Evagrius’ cosmology these three ‘signs’ also suggest the fallen state of the nous. Thus the second,  parallel set of concepts for meditation is a more overt reminder of the origin and destiny of the nous: second (fallen) nature; first (unfallen) nature; and Christ who enjoys knowledge of the Unity. The capstone of this passage is clearly the reference to ‘knowledge of the Unity’, which Evagrius elsewhere refers to as ‘essential knowledge’. Christ now ‘knows the Unity’, and the implication is that the reader, too, should ascend from ‘the sign of the body’ through the ‘sign of the soul’ to the ‘sign of the nous’ in order to ‘know’ what Christ knows.

1.79

 

 I,79. THE second renunciation is the laying aside of vice, which happens through divine grace and human diligence.


=Thoughts/Peri.Log. 26.19-25. The next step after abandonment of the world (ascetic apotaxis or withdrawal from secular society,KG 1.78) is praktiké, the struggle against vice or evil (κακία).  This struggle entails not only ascetical effort or “diligence” but the grace that comes from “asking of Christ the inner meanings (logoi)” of temptations, thus engaging in ascetical practice “more contemplatively” (γνωστικώτερος), Prak. 50 SC p. 614; cf. Eulog. 26 (PG 79.1128C.

 1.79. ἀπόταξις δὲ δευτέρα ἀπόθεσις κακίας χάριτι Θεοῦ καὶ σπουδῇ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου προσγινομένη: [Hr-nfg 230=E5]

[S1]Η δε δευτερα αποταγη εστι το απαλλοτριωθηναι της κακιας οτι ζηλωι του ανθρωπου τε και χαριτι του θεου γινεται.

[S1: The second renunciation is distancing oneself from evil, which is produced by the application of man and by the grace of God.

1.80

 

 I,80. THE third renunciation is separation from ignorance, which naturally becomes apparent to people according to state they have attained.


=Thoughts/Peri.Log. 26.19-25. Evagrius’ third “renunciation” is the ascent from ascetical practice to spiritual knowledge or contemplation (theoretiké/gnostiké).  The capacity for this depends on success in the struggle against vice and the attainment of some measure of apatheia as taught in the Praktikos.   The ascetic may then attempt insofar as their spiritual state permits, the twin art of contemplative exegesis of the scriptures, described in the Gnostikos, and the perception of God’s purposes (logoi) in history and creation, the subject of the Kephalaia Gnostica.

 1.80. ἀπόταξις δὲ τρίτη ἐστὶ χωρισμὸς ἀγνοίας τῶν πεφυκότων ἐμφανίζεσθαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις κατ᾿ ἀναλογίαν τῆς καταστάσεως. [Hr-nfg 230=E5]

[S1] Η τριτη ἀποταγη εστιν αφορισμος της αγνοιας ητις ειωθοτως οραται τις ανθρωποις ως φαντασιαι εν τωι πολεμωι κατα το μετρον της αυξησεως αυτων.

[S1: The third renunciation is the separation from ignorance, which usually appears to men as certain fantasies in combat, according to the degree of their growth.

1.81

 

 I,81. WHILE the glory and light of the nous is knowledge, the glory and light of the soul is apatheia.


On the light of the nous and its possible origins: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15; Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 39, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.

 1.81 1. Δόξα οὖν καὶ φῶς τοῦ νοός ἐστιν ἡ γνῶσις, δόξα δὲ καὶ φῶς ζωῆς ἡ ἀπάθεια. [Hr-nfg 230=E7] 1.81 [S1 ]

[S1] [119] Δοξα και φως του νοος εστιν η πνευματικη γνωσις· δοξα δε και φως της ψυχης η απαθεια.

[S1: The glory and light of the nous is spiritual knowledge, the glory and light of the soul is its apatheia.

1.82

 

 I,82. THAT which sensible death normally does in us, the just judgment of God (2Th 1:5) will similarly accomplish for the other logikoi when he is ready to judge the living and the dead (1Pet 4:5) and to render to each according to his works. (Rev 22:12)

 1,82. Οτι ο αισθητος θανατος ειωθε ποιεν εν ημιν ͅ ως αυτως η -- δικαια του θεου κρισις απασι τοις λογικοις ποιησει εν ωι καιρωι μελλει κρινειν ζωντας τε και νεκρους και ανταποδωσει ενι εκαστωι κατα τα εργα αυτου. [S1=S2]

1.83

 

 I,83. IF the Gihon is the Egyptian river that surrounds the whole land of [Ethiopia] Cush, (Gen 2:13) from which Israel was commanded by one of the prophets not to drink, (Jer 2:18 ) we also know the three other sources and the river from which the four sources are separated.


Evagrius alludes to two biblical texts that had become favorite subjects of mystical exegesis since the time of Philo.  In Jeremiah 2.18 the prophet warns against drinking from the river Gihon, associated with Egypt and Ethiopia/Kush, and thus a symbol of  sin and vice (Philo, Leg.alleg, 1.68; Origen In evang. Ion., 6.47;  Didymus Comm. Zach, 3.158; Athanasius, Festal Letter 7.5; Evagrius, KG 4.64, 5.6, 5.21, 6.49, Sch. 19 on Ps. 67.32).  The second text is Gen. 2.10-15 where the single headwater and the four outflowing rivers of paradise are described. These became allegories of primordial goodness and the four cardinal virtues of prudence, temperance, courage and justice (Philo, Leg. alleg, 1.63); or the four gospels (cf. Greg. Nyssa, Easter Homily 4: Orat IV in Christi Resurrect.).

 1,83. Ει Γιων ποταμος αιγυπτος εστι κυκλων πασαν την γην Αιθιοπιας -- εφ' ου δι ενος ͅ των προφητων εκελευσθη Ισραηλ μη πιειν γιγνωσκομεν και τας τρεις -- αλλας αρχας και τον ποταμον αφ' ου αφοριζονται αι τεσσαρες αρχαι. [S1=S2]

1.84

 

 I,84. KNOWLEDGE and ignorance are united in the nous, while epithumia is receptive of self-control and [shameful] lust, and love and hate normally affix to thumos. But the first accompanies first [beings], and the second, second [beings].


On first and second beings: 1.542.64.  On second beings: KG 1.611.62 1.653.83.613.685.87. On the virtues and vices of the tripartite soul: Prak. 89; Gnost. 44. The hegemonikon or nous is the principal feature of first beings while the pathetikon (moved by epithumia and thumos) is secondary, material, and intended as a means of spiritual re-ascent (Thoughts (Peri Log 17); cf.Schol.3 On Ps 22.4 )..

 1,84. [121] Ο των λογικων νους δεκτικος εστι της τε γνωσεως και της αγνοιας, το δε επιθυμητικον δεκτικον της σωφροσυνης και της αισχυνης, μετα δε τον ζηλον {͂θυμον} η αγαπη και το μισος τρεχει· κολλαται δε τωι πρωτευοντι εν τοις πρωτοις το πρωτευον εν τοις δευτεροις και τωι πρωτευονται εν τοις δευτεροις το πρωτευον εν τοις τριτοις. S1: The nous  of the logikoi is receptive of knowledge and ignorance, epithumia is receptive of chastity and of luxury, and following the thumos go love and hatred That which is first among the firsts is accompanied by what is first among the seconds, and what is first among the seconds (is accompanied) by what is first among the thirds

1.85

 

 I,85. THE nous circles around [or: wanders] when impassioned and is uncontrolled when it regards the material causes of its pleasures; but it ceases from distraction when it achieves apatheia and attains the company of incorporeal [beings] who fulfill all its spiritual desires. [


=Peri.Log. 26.15-17 As noted above on KG 1.78, this text is found in Peri.Log. 26.15-17, where it immediately precedes the three renunciations Evagrius has divided into KG 1.78-80.  The attainment of apatheia, freedom from obsessive-compulsive thoughts and actions, renders the ascetic more stable and thus less subject to distractions. In this state it becomes possible to perceive both the logoi, God’s inner purposes within events and beings, and the angels who are the messengers and instruments of these logoi. Prak 15, 49, 61; Mal.Cog/Thoughts 17-19; Skem 25; Cf. Prayer 46

 Κυκλεύι γὰρ ὁ νοῦς ἐμπαθὴς ὢν καὶ δυσκάθεκτος γίνεται, τὰς ποιητικὰς τῶν ἡδονῶν ὕλας ἐπισκεπτόμενος. Ἵσταται δ̀ τῆς πλάνης ἀπαθὴς γεγονὼς καὶ τοῖς ἀσωμάτοις περιτυχῶν τοῖς ἀποπληροῦσι τὰς πνευματικὰς ἐπιθυμίας αὐτῷ. P.Log.26 15-17


1,85. [123] Ο νους περιαγεται εμπαθης γεγομενος ουδε συνεχεται πραττων ποικιλας επιθυμιας· αφεστηκε δε τοις ορμης και παυεται της πλανης της κυκλωι αυτου απαθης γενομενος και ομιλων τοις ασωματοις ατινα πληροι πασας τας πνευματικας επιθυμιας αυτου.

[S1: The nous wanders, when it becomes impassioned, that it is to say it is uncontrollable when it achieves its diverse desires. But it restrains itself in its rush and renounces its distractions which surround it when it becomes dispassionate and when it has arrived in the company of those who are  bodiless, those who fulfill all its spiritual desires.

1.86

 

 I,86. LOVE is the excellent state of the reasoning soul; [for] in it one cannot love anything among corruptible things more than the knowledge of God.


Cf KG 3.86.  On love that possesses nothing but God: Eulogius 22.  Eight Thoughts 16,  Vices Opp.to Virtues 3.

ἀγάπη ἐστὶν ἕξις ἀρίστη λογικῆς ψυχῆς, καθʼ ἣν οὐδὲν τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ γνώσεως προτιμᾷ [FP 04.1.0]


1,86. Αγαπη εστιν υπερβαλλουσα της λογικης ψυχης καταστασις καθ' ην αδυνατον αγαπαν τι του κοσμου τουτου μαλλον η την του θεου γνωσιν. [S1] S1=S2:   Love is the excellent state of the reasonable soul, which in this cannot love anything which is among corruptible things more than the knowledge of God

1.87

 

 I,87. ALL beings came into being through the knowledge of God, but everything that came to exist by another is less than that for which it exists. Because of this, the knowledge of God is superior to all.


Cf. KG 1.3 Knowledge of God is the means of creation (KG 1.50) and all reasoning beings naturally desire it. Cf. Scholion 15 On Eccl. 3.10-13; Sch 7 On Ps 17.12; Let. Trin 12.

 1,87. Πάντα τὰ γεγονότα διὰ τὴν γνῶσιν γέγονε τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἵνα ἐκ μεγέθους καὶ καλλονῆς {cf. Sap. XIII, 5} ὃ γέγονεν γινώσκεται· πᾶν δὲ ὃ ἐτέρου γίνεται χάριν, τοῦτο ἔλαττον ἐκείνου ἐστὶν οὗ ἕνεκα γίνεται· πάντων ἄρα τιμιωτέρα ἐστὶν ἡ γνῶσις τοῦ Θεοῦ.[Muyld, Evag 17, p. 58]

[S1] Παν γεγομενον δια την του θεου γνωσιν γεγονε παν δε δι' αλλο τι γενομενον -- ηττον εστι παρα το δι' ο εγενετο· δια τουτο παντα υπερβαλλει η του θεου γνωσις, οτι δι' αυτην παντα γεγονε.

[S1: Everything that was created was created for the knowledge of God; on the other hand, everything that was created for something else is less than what it was created for; in consequence, the knowledge of God is superior to everything, because everything was created for it

 

 

 I,88. NATURAL knowledge is true understanding of those [things/beings] that were created through knowledge of the Blessed Trinity.


Cf KG 1.70, 1.74.  Knowledge of God is the means of creation: KG 1.50.

 1,88. [125] Η φυσικη γνωσις εστι συνεσις αληθινη των δια την της αγιας Τριαδος γνωσιν γεγομενων.
[S1: Natural knowledge is true understanding of those created on account of the knowledge of the Holy Trinity.]

1.89

 

 I,89. EVERY reasoning nature was naturally made in order to exist and to know; and God is essential knowledge. And while non-existence is opposed to reasoning nature, and knowledge is [opposed] to evil and ignorance – there is in these no opposition to God.


God is essential knowledge: KG 2.11, 2.47, 3.12, 4.77, 5.55, 5.56, 5.81, 6.10, 6.14, 6.16, 6.34, 6.73; Prayer 69, 74, 132; Sch. 13 on Ps 43.21; Sch. 11 on Ps 88.21; Sch. 3 on Ps 138.7; Letter 29.3; 58.4.  All (reasoning) beings are drawn by their nature to knowledge of God. There is no “essential” evil - only opposition to God Cf. KG 1.1

 1,89. Πασα λογικη φυσις πεφυκε μανθανειν την αληθινην γνωσιν ο ͅ δε θεος γνωσις ουσιωδης εστι· τηι λογικηι φυσει ουν ητις εκτισθη εναντιον εστι το οτι ουκ αν εκτισθη, εναντιον δε τωι αυτεξουσιωι αυτης η κακια τε και η αγνοια, εν δε τουτων ουκ εστιν εναντιον τωι θεωι.
[S1 All reasoning nature was naturally made to understand true knowledge, and God is essential knowledge. The reasoning nature that has been created therefore has opposed to it the fact of not being created; and opposed to liberty are evil and ignorance; but not one of those things is opposed to God.]

1.90

 

 I,90. IF this is the day called “Friday”, on which our Savior was crucified, then all who died are a symbol of his grave; for with them [also] died the righteousness of God that will live again on the third day and will be raised clothed with a spiritual body ( 1Cor 15:44) - if today and tomorrow he works miracles and on the third day it is finished. ( Luke 13:32)  1,90. Ει σημερον η παρασκευη εστιν εν ηι ο σωτηρ ημων εσταυρωθη, παντες [127] οι απεθανον εν Χριστωι τυπος εισι του ταφου αυτου εν οις η του θεου δικαιοσυνη τεθαπται ητις αναστησεται τηι τριτηι ημεραι ημφιεσμενη σωμα πνευματικον· αληθης γαρ ο του σωτηρος ημων λογος οτι σημερον και αυριον δυναμεις ποιησει ͅ τηι δε τριτηι ημεραι τελειουται.  

The kephalaion ends by quoting Luke 13.32, Jesus’ response to the Pharisees warning him that Herod wanted to kill him. “He said to them, “Go and tell that fox, ‘Listen, I am casting out demons and performing cures today and tomorrow, and on the third day I finish my work.”  Evagrius, following Jesus’ anticipation of his death, identifies the three days with the Friday of Jesus’ crucifixion, the Saturday of his entombment, and the Sunday of his resurrection. These, in turn, become a prophecy of the revival of all the dead by the removal of evil (ignorance and non-being), symbolized by exorcism.  It is then that rational minds gain a “spiritual body,” 1 Cor 15.42a-44: “It is sown a natural (psychikon) body, it is raised a spiritual (pneumatikon) body.”


     Evagrius alludes to the eschaton using the symbols of weekdays (Friday, Saturday, Sunday; the sixth, seventh, and eighth days; today, tomorrow, and the third day: KG 4.26; 5.83; 6.7 ) and the sabbatical year (KG 5.8; Letter 41). See Gehin, SC 340, p. 305 and Guillaumont, Keph.Gn. pp.238-239.

 



 

 

THE END of THE FIRST
(Century of the Kephalaia Gnostica)

 

 

 



 

 

  

 

THE SECOND CENTURY_

 

  

 

2.1

 

II,1.  THE mirror of the goodness of God, of his power and his wisdom, [these are] the things that in the beginning were nothing [and have] become something.


Cf KG 1.14., Wis. 7.26-26,  1 Cor. 1.24,  Creation from nothing: KG 5.50

2,1. Εσοπτρον της αγαθοτητος του θεου και της δυναμεως τε και σοφιας αυτου εστιν η κτισις η εξ ουδενος εις τι γενομενη.

2.02

 

II,2.  IN second natural contemplation we see the manifold wisdom of Christ (Eph. 3:10) which he employs and which served in the creation of the worlds; but in the knowledge that concerns the logikoi, we have been instructed concerning [Christ] himself.


On the  “knowledge of second nature employed by Christ in the creation of  “bodies and worlds: KG 3.26; cf. KG 1.50; 2.2.. For first and second natural contemplation: Cf. KG 2.3; KG 2.13; KG 2.21; KG 3.61.  On second and third contemplations cf. KG 3,21.

2,2. Εν τηι δευτεραι θεωριαι τηι φυσικηι την ποικιλην Χριστον σωφιαν ορωμεν ηι χρησαμενος εκτισε τους κοσμους? εν δε τηι περι των λογικων φυσεων περι της ουσιας αυτου μανθανομεν.

2.3

 

II,3.  THE first of all [types] of knowledge is knowledge of the Monad and of the Unity, and older than all natural contemplation is spiritual knowledge: indeed, the former comes forth before the Creator, and it arises with the nature that accompanies it.


Cf. KG 2.21, 1.32 Sch.1-2 On Prov. 1.1; Thoughts (Peri.Log.) 25Sch 15 On Eccl 3.10-13.  Only the just can have spiritual knowledge: Cf. Schol. 15 On Eccl. 3.10-13. Cf  KG 1.722.33.15, 3.35, 3.42.   As above, (KG 2.2.) for first and second natural contemplation: Cf. KG 3.61.  On the second and third contemplations cf KG 3.21.  On the second and third transformations: KG 2.4

2,3. Πρωτη πασων γνωσεων εστιν η της Μοναδος γνωσις και πασης φυσικης θεωριας πρεσβυτερα εστιν η πνευματικη γνωσις? αυτη γαρ πρωτον εχ του κτιστου εξηλθε τε και αμα τηι φυσει ητς εκολλατο αυτηι εξελαμψεν.

2.04

 

II,4.  WHILE the transformations are numerous, we have received knowledge of only four: the first, the second, the last and what precedes it.  The first, it is said, is the passage from vice to virtue; the second is that from apatheia to second natural contemplation; the third, is [the passage] from the former to the knowledge that concerns the logikoi; and the fourth is the passage from all these to knowledge of Blessed Trinity.


Spiritual progress described as “transformations:” after (1) asceticism (praktiké) the “wings of apatheia (KG 2.6)” (2) lead the soul to knowledge; then the ”wings of the dove” raise the soul to (3) contemplation of the ages (gnostiké) and (4) rest in  knowledge of the Trinity (theologiké). The threefold ordering of spiritual progress (praktiké, gnostiké, theologiké) is foreshadowed in Origen, Com.S.of S.prol.1.3.4.  Cf. Gnost Prak. (Praktikos 1;  84 Gnost 2-312-13, 49  Ad Mon.118, 119, 120),  KG 1.13, 4.40. Cf. Thoughts (Peri.Log.) 29:  On “change” and “transformation” (metathesis, metabasis): KG 2.59, 2.69, 2.73, 2.77, 2.79, 2.87; 3.7, 3.9, 3.20, 3.25, 3.45, 3.47, 3.48, 3.50, 3.51; 5.10; 6.58.

2,4. Πολλων ουσων μεταθεσεων ημεις την τεσσαρων μονον διακρισιν γινωσκομεν. και η μεν πρωτη εστι κατα τους πατερας ? η εκ της κακιας εις την αρετην μεταστασις, η δε δευτερα η εκ της απειθειας εις την φυσικην θεωριαν την δευτεραν, η δε τριτη η εκ ταυτης εις την των λογικων φυσεων γνωσιν αναγωγη, η δε τεταρτη η εκ τουτων παντων εις την αγιαν Τριαδα μεταστασις.

2.05

 

II,5.  THE Body of What Is, is the contemplation of beings; and the soul of What Is, is knowledge of the Unity.  He who knows the soul is called the soul of That Which Is, and those who know the body are named body of that soul.


Spiritual ascent is analogous to the different levels of body and soul: KG 1.77 and note. The threefold anthropological model of body, soul, and nous, is a sequence that illustrates the hierarchical ordering of different levels of creation, cf. Letter to Melania (Letter 64) 15. He/That Which is: KG 1.09, 1.12, 1.14, 1.17  2.5.

2,5. Σωμα πνευματικον των λογικων φυδεων εστιν η παντων των [[αυτων θεωρια, ζωη δε αυτων αλητινη η της αγιας μοναδος γνωσις.

2.06

 

II,6.  THE praktike soul which, with God, has triumphed and has departed from the body will be in the regions of  knowledge where the wings of its apatheia will give it rest (cf. Pss. 55:6, 17:8; 36:7)


Cf. Sch, 2 on Ps. 54.7; Thoughts (Peri.Log.) 29KG 3.56 (as above on KG 2.4) the “wings of the dove” raise the soul to contemplation of the ages and rest in knowledge of the Trinity.  For Plato (Phaedrus 246a-254e) contemplation of beauty gives the soul wings

2.6. Ψυχὴ δὲ ἡ τὴν πρακτικὴν σὺν Θεῷ κατορθώσασα καὶ λυθεῖσα τοῦ σώματος, ἐν ἐκείνοις γίνεται τοῖς τῆς γνώσεως τόποις, ἐν οἷς αὐτὴν τὸ τῆς ἀπαθείας πτερὸν καταπαύσει. [Hr-nfg 230=E4]


[=S1] Η ψυχη η εργαζομενη εργαζομενη ητις χαριτι του θεου ευοδωθη και του σωματος [[αφωρισται εν εκεινοις τοις τοποις της γνωσεως εσται οπου αι της απαθιας πτερυγες αυτην κατανταν ποιησουσιν .[S1] The praktike soul that by the grace of God has triumphed and is part of the body will be in those regions of knowledge where the wings of its apatheia will send it.

2.07

 

II,7.  THE the soul's heirs (inheritance/heritage) after death, are those who have been of assistance to it either for virtue or for vice. (cf. Heb.1:14)


 On the inheritance/heritage of Christ: KG 1.18, 3.724.84.9, {4.785.365.68; Schol 40 on Prov 3.35, To Monks 1}.

2,7. Ουτοι κληρονομησουσιν την ψυχην μετα τον θανατον οι η εν τηι αρετηι η εν τηι κακιαι αυτηι ζηλωται

2.08

 

II,8.  THE wealth of the soul is knowledge, and its poverty ignorance; but  if ignorance is deprivation of knowledge, wealth precedes poverty, and the health of the soul [precedes] its sickness.


 On the inheritance/heritage of Christ: KG 1.18, 3.724.84.9, {4.785.365.68; Schol 40 on Prov 3.35, To Monks 1}.

 [Letter 43.3, Sch 155 on Prov. 17.6a.; Sch. 8 On Ps 9. 18; Sch. 4 On Ps 64.10;

2,8. Πλουυτος της ψυχης εστιν η πνευματικη γνωσις πτωχεια δε η αγνοια? [-- εν -- ει] δε η αγνοια αποστερησις εστι της γνωσεως δηλοντι προτερας εστιν ο πλουτος της πτωχειας και η της ψυχης υγιεια της νοσου αυτης.

2.9

 

II,9.  WHO knows the activity of the commandments?  Who understands the powers of the soul, and how the former heal the latter and urge them on to the contemplation of things which exist?


Keepig the commandments increases virtue, which facilitates contemplation,  Cf. Prak. 49 & 79; KG 2.15. Gregory of Nyssa teaches that the soul is healed by contemplating the thoughts (noemata) contained in the Lord’s Prayer, (On the Lord’s Prayer 4).  cf ; Evag. Prayer, 86; .83-85.

2,9. Τις γινωσκει την των εντολων του θεου ενεργειαν και τις συνιησι τας της ψυχης δυναμεις και πως εκειναι ταυτας ιωνται τε και προς την αληθινην θεωριαν προςαγουσιν.

 

 

II,10.  DELIGHTFUL are things that approach us through the senses, but [even] more delightful is their contemplation.  But, because sensation does not attain knowledge due to our weakness, [sensation] comes to be esteemed as superior to [knowledge] not attained. Cf. Sch 15. on Eccl. 3.10-13. (?cf. Letter 42? )

 

[S1] Desirable are things that are known through the organs of sense, but most desirable is the contemplation of true knowledge. But because sensation cannot attain knowledge due to its infirmity, it regards as superior what is closer, rather than that which is distant and [truly] superior to it.

2.10 Τερπνὰ μὲν τὰ διὰ τῶν αἰσθήσεων ἡμῖν προσπίπτοντα πράγματα· τερπνοτέρα δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον τούτων ἐστίν ἡ θεωρία, ἀλλ᾿ ἐπειδὴ μὴ φθάνει τὴν γνῶσιν ἡ αἴσθησις διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν ἀσθένειαν, αὐτὴ προτιμοτέρα εἶναι δοκεῖ τῆς μηδέπω παρούσης. [Hr-nfg 230=E6]

[S1] Επιθυμητα μεν τα πραγματα τα δι' αισθησεων γινωσκομενα μαλλον δε επιθυμητη παρ' αυτα η της αληθινης γνωσεως θεωρια· αλλα γαρ διοτι ουκ εντονως επιβαλλεται η αισθησις της γνωσεως δια την ασθενειαν αυτης υπολαμβανεται ως υπερβαλλει εν τωι εγγυς ειναι της μακραν απουσης τε και αυτης υπερβαλλουσης.

2.11

 

II,11.  WITH regard to everything composed of the four elements, things near or distant, it is possible for us to perceive some likeness.  But only our nous is incomprehensible to us, as well as God, its author.  Indeed, it is not possible for us to understand what is a nature susceptible of the Blessed Trinity, nor to understand the Unity, essential knowledge. 

2,11. Περι παντος εκ των τεσσαρων στοιχειων συνεστηκοτος ειτε εηηυς ειτε μακραν οντος δυναμεθα θεωριαν λαβειν τηι ενεργειαι της του κυριου χαριτος, μονος δε ο νους ημων ακαταληπτος εστι και μαλλον παρ' αυτον ο θεος ο ποιητης αυτου διοτι γαρ ο θεος ου καταλαμβανεται ουδε το καταλυμα αυτου.

 

 

II,12.  THE right hand of the Lord is also called hand, but His hand is not thus [also] said to be His right hand.  For although his hand receives increase and diminution, this does not apply to the right hand.


In Evagrius exegetical texts the term hand may describe either the provident angels (Sch 7 on Ps 16. 13) or the providence they administer (Sch 1. on Ps 94.4); while God's right hand designates Christ Sch 19. on Ps 17.36; Epist.Fidei 11; (Great) Letter to Melania 6-9.

2,12. Η δειξια του Χριστου και χερ αυτου ονομαζεται η δε χειρ αυτου ου λεγεται και δεξια αυτου ? διοτι της μεν εστιν ο σκοπος εν δοσει της δε εν παιδειαι.

2.13

 

II,13.  FIRST natural contemplation nature suffices for understanding the existence of reasoning natures, and the second also suffices for its return.


For first and second natural contemplation: cf.  KG 2.2; KG 2.3; KG 3.61.  On second and third contemplations cf. KG 3,21.  Cf. Prayer 58.

2,13. Εξηρκεσε το πρωτον η πνευματκη θεωρια εις το ειναι φυσεις λογικας, αρκεσει δε και η δευτερα εις το προσαγειν αυτας προς την τελειοτητα.

 

 

II,14.  THΟSE who live in equivalent bodies are not in the same knowledge, but are, rather, in the same world.  But those who are in the same knowledge are in equivalent bodies and in the same world. 

2,14. ? Οι ισοι εν τηι των εργων τελειοτητι ισοι εσονται και εν τηι των πονων ανταποδοσει και οι ισοι εν τηι γνωσει αυτων τηι πνευματικηι ισωθησονται και εν τηι της κληρονομιας αυτων δοξηι.

2.15

 

II,15. WHEN reasoning nature receives the contemplation of itself, then all the power of the nous will also be perfected.


Cf. KG 2.9.  On knowledge that heals the nous: KG 3.35.  On the nous :that contemplates its own light: cf. KG 1.74;  KG 1.81; Sc.Prov.258; On Pr. 74 & 75.; P.Log. 40 & 42; Skem 24;  23;  27.

2,15. Οταν η λογικη φυσις την αυτης θεωριαν δεξηται τοτε και η του νοος δυναμις τελειος εσται.

 

 

II,16. SUCH is the contemplation of all that is and will come to be, that the nature that is receptive of it will be able to receive also the knowledge of the Trinity. 

2,16. Ουτως εστιν η παντων των οντων γνωσις ωστε την ψυχην την κοινωνουσαν αυτης αναγαγειν προς την γνωσιν της αγιας Τριαδος.

2.17

 

II,17.  ACCOMPANYING the knowledge concerning the logikoi are: the destruction of worlds, the dissolution of bodies, and the abolition of names; while equality of knowledge remains, according to equality of substances.


The destruction of bodies: 3.66; On the dissolution of names and numbers cf KG 1.7; Great (Letter 64) to Melania, 22-23, 26-27; cf. KG 2.24. On the names of God before and after the movement/fall: KG 6.24.

2,17. Εν τηι της των λογικων γνωσεως αυξησει μεταβαλλονται κοσμοι και εξαλειφεται ονοματα μενουσης της ισοτητος {ταυτοτητος} της γνωσεως κατα τν των προσωπων ισοτητα.

2.18

 

II,18.  JUST as the nature of bodies is concealed by qualities that remain in them and [qualities] ceaselessly succeed each other, so also reasoning nature is concealed by virtue and knowledge, or by vice and ignorance.  And to say that one of these second things is made naturally with the logikoi is unjust, because it it has appeared with the constitution of the nature. 

2,18. [143] Ωσπερ τα σωματα καλυπτουσιν η ποιοτητες η χρωματα εν οις γενναται, ουτως καλυπτουσι τας λογικας φυσεις αρετη τε και γνωσις η κακια τε και αγνοια.

2.19

 

II,19.  THE knowledge concerning the logikoi is older than duality, and the knowing nature [is older] than all natures.

2,19. Πασων των λογικων φυσεων πρεσβυτερα η [της αληθειας {ορ}] αληθινη γνωσις διοτι μετα το γενεσθαι αυτας εν αυτηι αυξανονται εως κατανταν εις την τελειοτητα αυτης.

 

 

II,20.  SECOND natural contemplation was incorporeal in the beginning; [but] later the Creator has revealed the nature of the logikoi by means of matter.


Prior to the creation of matter contemplation of the logikoi, (reasoning beings) was incorporeal/immaterial, since the logikoi were pure nous. God then bestowed material bodies that revealed their good or evil natures; and God continues to do so in subsequent judgments of each one. KG 3.47; 3.51. Cf. Sch. 8 On Ps 1.5; KG 3.48; 3.50; .Sch. 275 On Prov. 24.22

2,20. Την πνευματικην γνωσιν ητις προτερα των σωματων μετα το ειναι εν σωμασιν εδιδασκεν ο κτιστης την λογικην φυσιν.

2.21

 

II,21.  EVERYTHING that has been made proclaims the richly-varied wisdom of God; (Eph 3:10) but there is not one being among them that provides information concerning His nature.


No created thing can reveal the essentially good nature of God: KG 1.3; KG 1.1.  Cf. KG  2.2; 2.3;

2,21. [145] Παν το γενομενον κηρυξ εστι της του θεου πολυποικιλου σοφιας ουδεν δε των οντων καταληπτικον της φυσεως αυτου.

 

 

II,22.  JUST as the Word has known the nature of the Father, so the reasoning nature [has known] that of Christ.


Sch 4 On Ps 88.2; Sch 13 On Ps 25.2; Sch 7 On Ps 44.2-3; Sch. 10 On Ps 104.15. Cf. Sch 2 On Ps 9.5; Sch 4 On Ps 17.7

2,22. Ωσπερ την του πατρος εικονα ο λογος της αληθειας ο υιος αυτου ο κυριος ημων Ι. Χ. εξεφηνε και απεδεικνυσιν.

 

 

II,23.  THE image of the essence of God also knows the contemplation of things that are; but he who knows the contemplation of beings - he is not absolutely the image of God.


Although incorporeal nature was created in the image of God (Sch 4 On Ps 38.6)Christ alone is the true temple of God, of which created beings are secondary reflections (cf. Sch 4 On Ps 17.7)

2,23. [147] Ο ων εν εικονι του αορατου θεου ουτος εστι διδασκαλος της περι αυτου γνωσεως προς γε πασαν φυσιν λογικην ητις ενεγετο τν τηι ομοιοτητι αυτου.

2.24

 

II,24. THERE is only one who has received names in common with others.


Christ has the epinoia (title or name) of both father and mother: Sch. 210 On Prov. 20.9.  On the names of God before and after the movement/fall: KG 6.24.On the abolition of names: KG 2.171.7

2,24. Εις εστι μονος ος τηι χαριτι αυτου υπεδεξατο κτασθαι ονοματα τροπικα μετα των ονοματων {κυριων} αυτου.

2.25

 

II,25.  JUST as the body is called grain of the ear to come, so also this present world will be called grain of that which will come after it. (cf. Mk 4:28-31; cf. Sch. 5 on Ps 134.7; cf KG 2.49)

2,25. Ωσπερ κοκκος του μελοντος σταχυος ονομαζεται το του εσπαρμενου σωμα ουτως και ουτος ο κοσμος ο καθεστως ονομαζεται κοκκος του μελλοντος.

2.26

 

II,26.  IF the wheat carries the symbol of virtue and the straw the symbol of vice (Mat 3:12, Lk.3:17), the symbol of the world to come is amber which will attract the straw to it.


Straw (or grass - chortos) and stubble (kalame) symbolize vice and sin (Sch 3 on Ps. 17 8-9; Sch 2 On Ps 36.1; Sch 2 on Ps 96.3, etc.); They are ignoble foundation-materials that Paul says will be be tested in fire: (1 Cor 3.12-13) and which Evagrius says will be consumed by the fire Christ came to cast upon the earth: (Lk. 12.49); Sch 18 On Ps 36.20; Sch 4 On Ps 91.8)

2,26. Ει ο σιτος συμβολον εστι της αρετης το δε αχυρου.

 

 

II,27.  THE nous, when it considers the noetics, sometimes receives their vision separately, and sometimes also becomes a seer of objects. 

2,27. Ο νους ο πνευματικος ατεν?ζων εις τα νοητα τοτε μεν κατα διαφοραν το ειδος αυτων δεχεται τοτε δε η ορασις αυτων δηλαυγης εσται.

2.28

 

II,28.  THE sensible eye when it sees some visible thing, does not see the totality: but the noetic eye either does not see, or else when it sees, it immediately surrounds what it sees from all sides. 

2,28. 0ο αισθητος οφθαλμος βλεπων εις τι το συνολον καθοραι ο δε νοητος οφθαλμος η ουχ οραι η ορων παντοθεν κυκλωι περιλαμβανει το ορωμενον.

2.29

 

II,29.  JUST as fire potentially possesses its body, so also the nous potentially possesses the soul when it is entirely mixed with the light of the Blessed Trinity.


On the light of the nous and its possible origins: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15; Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 39, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.

2,29. [149] Ωσπερ το πυρ δυναμει κταται το σωμα αυτου ουτως και ο νουσ δυναμει κτησεται την ψυχην πανταπασι κεκραμενος αυτηι εν τωι της αγιας τριαδος φωτι.

2.30

 

II,30.  THE holy powers know the logoi [poss.. τὰ νοητά, the intellections cf. KG 2.45] of all those over whom they have also been made guardians; but it is not [necessarily] over those whose logoi [intellections] they know that they exercise absolute guardianship. 

2,30. παντων ων την προστατειαν αι αγιαι δυναμεις υπεδεξαντο και την συνεσιν της γνωσεως αυτων επιγιγνωσκουσιν αλλ' ου παντων ων γιγνωσκουσι την συνεσιν και την προστατειαν εδεξαντο.

2.31

 

II,31.  MEN live three lives: the first, the second and the third.  Those who belong to the first nature receive the first and the second lives; but the third life is received by those who belong to the second nature.  And it is said that the first life comes from what is, but that the second and the third come from what is not. 

2,31 [151] Τρια ειδη εστι της των ανθρωπων ζωης, φυσικως, υπερ την φυσιν και παρα την φυσιν? δυο μεν κατα το του θεου θελημα εν δε κατα την αμελειαν του θεληματος αυτων.

 

 

II,32.  JUST as it is not material [things], but rather their power that feed bodies; so it is not occurrences, but rather their contemplation that make the soul grow.

[S1] Just as is not material things that nourish the body, but rather their powers; so also it is not [external] matters themselves that make the soul grow, but the varieties of the knowledge of [external] matters.

2,32. Ὥσπερ οὐκ αἱ ὕλαι, ἀλλ' αἱ ποιότητες αὐτῶν τὰ σώματα διαστρέφουσιν· οὕτως οὐ τὰ πράγματα ἀλλ' ἁι περὶ αὐτῶν θεωρίαι αὔξουσι τὴν ψυχήν. [Muyld, Evag 18, p. 58]

   [S1] [153] Ωσπερ ουχ αι υλαι τρεφουσιν τα σωματα αλλα η δυναμις αυτων ουτως ουδε τα πραγματα αυτα αυξανει την ψυχην αλλα αι της των πραγματων γνωσεως διακρισεις.

2.33

 

II,33.  AMONG the objects of material knowledge, some are primary, and the others secondary.  The first are corruptible in potential, and the second are [corruptible] in potential and in act.


Distinction between potentiality and activity, cf. KG 1.241.55.

2,33. Η της των λογικων γνωσεως αυξησις εστιν εν ορασει των φθαρτων τε και των αφθαρτων? η μεν γυμνασια αυτης εν τοις φθαρτοις η δε τελειωσις εν τοις αφθαρτοις.

2.34

 

II,34. JUST as the magnesium stone by its natural power attracts iron to itself, in the same way holy knowledge naturally attracts to itself the pure nous. Cf, KG 1.3: reasoning nature = knowing essence.

2,34. Ωσπερ η μαγνητις λιθος δια φυσικης δυναμεως εν αυτηι κεκρυμμενης τον σιδηρον προς αυτην ελκει ουτως και η αγια γνωσις τον νουν τον καθαρον.

2.35

 

II,35.  THE nous, too, possesses five spiritual senses with which it senses the substances presented to it.  Vision shows it simple, noetic objects: hearing receives the logoi that concern them; fragrance that is a stranger to deceit delights the sense of smell; and the mouth receives the flavor of the latter; the [sense of] touch confirms it by grasping the exact demonstration of objects. (cf. Origen, D.Prin. I,1,9)

[S1] The nous, also, has five spiritual senses, by which it sees and feels the minds of creatures. Vision shows it beings as [external] objects; through hearing it receives the logoi that concern them; through smell it revels in the holy and unmixed fragrance, while the palate of his mouth delights in them; by touching it receives exactly the certainty that is true in them.

2,35. Πέντε καὶ ὁ νοῦς κέκτηται θεῖας αἰσθήσεις, δι' ὧν ἀντιλαμβάνεται τῶν οἰκίων ὑλῶν· καὶ ὅρασις μὲν αὐτὰ ψιλὰ τὰ νοητὰ παρίστησιν αὐτῷ πράγματα· ἀκοὴ δὲ τοὺς λόγους περὶ αὐτῶν εἰδέχεται· τῆς δὲ παντὸς ψευδοῦς ἀμιγοῦς εὐωδίας ἀπολαύει ἡ ὄσφησις, καὶ τῆς ἐκ τούτων ἡδονῆς μεταλαμβάνει τὸ στόμα· διὰ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς πληροφορεῖται τὴν ἀκριβῆ λαμβάνοντων πραγμάτων ἀπόδειξιν. [Muyld, Evag 19, pp. 58-59]

[S1] Και ο νους πεντε αισθητηρια πνευματικα κεκτηται δι' ων οραι και αισθανεται τας διανοιας των κτισματων. η μεν ορασις αποδεικνυει αυτωι τα οντα ως πραγματα, δια της ακροασεως τους λογους περι αυτων δεχεται, δι' οσφρησεως δε ευφραινεται οσμηι αγιαι τε και αμιαντωι ͅ της του στοματος αυτου φαρυγγος τουτοις ηδομενης, δια δε της ψηλαφωσεως πεισμονην αληθινην εν αυτοις δεχεται.

 

 

II,36. IT is not to all who see noetic objects that the true logos concerning them has been confided: and those to whom their logoi have been confided do not [necessarily] see their objects.  But those who obtain both of these distinctions are called first-born of their brothers. (Rom 8:29)


Here Evagrius praises the ability to contemplate both sense-experiences (pragmata) and their inner, divine meanings (logoi).  Evagrius echoes Origen who also quotes Rom.8.29, describing the Christian who is able to praise both the creature and at the same time  “see how it shall ...be [...] restored to the glorious liberty of the children of God (Rom 8.19,20). This Christian says Origen,  “rises to a blessedness beyond those Paul calls 'Gods' Origen Contra Celsum, Bk 8 ch 5.  Cf. Evag. Prayer 122: “Blessed is the monk who regards every human being as God, after God.” cf also Evag. Maxims 2.23.

2,36. Ου πας ορατικος των νοητων πραγματων και τον λογον τον αληθινον περι αυτων επιστευθη, ουδε ος τους λογους αυτων επιστευθη και τα πραγματα αυτων οραι? εστι δ' οι τουτων των δυο μεγαλων διακρισεων εξιωθησαν οι πρωτοτοκοι των αδελφων αυτων ονομαζονται.

2.37

 

II,37.  THERE is one among all beings Who Is without a name and Whose place is not known.


On the dissolution of names and numbers cf KG 1.7; 2.17; Great (Letter 64) to Melania 22-23, 26-27; cf. KG 2.24. On the names of God before and after the movement/fall: KG 6.24 He Who Is: KG 1.17, 1.14, 1.19.

2,37. [157] Εις εστι μονος παντων των οντων ος ονομα εχει και ο τοπος αυτου ου γνωστος.

2.38

 

II,38.  WHOSE is the nature in the days before the Passion, and what is the knowledge of Holy Pentecost?


Pascha and Pentecost: cf. Ad Mon 40 - 43: Pascha is passing over from vices; Pentecost is both resurrection of the soul (Ad Mon 40) and love: Ad Mon 42. On Pentecost versus Babel cf. KG 4.54. Evagrius explains the significance of Pentecost in KG 4.54, contrasting it with the Tower of Babel (KG 4.53).

2,38. Της της οικονομιας συνεσεως το μεν εστιν εν ταις προ του παθηματος ημεραις το δε εν τηι αγιαι πεντηκοστηι σεσημειωται.

3.39

 

II,39.  THE five are related to the fifty, and the former are preparations for the knowledge of the latter.


The fiftyare associated with Pentecost as in KG 2.38 above; but this may also refer to number of fifty chapters of knowledge in the Gnostikos (Prak Prol.9). Thus the corporeality of the five senses is preparation for knowledge of Pentecost: both resurrection of the soul (Ad Mon 40) and love (Ad Mon 42)

2,39. Ο των πεντε αριθμος συμμετοχος του αυτου μυστηριου τωι των κεκτηκοντα? ταυτα δε εστιν αιτια συνεσεως.

2.40

 

II,40.  THE four are related to the forty, and the former is the contemplation of the forty.


The four (elements and virtues cf. KG 1.15) and the forty (days of Lent) signify the praktike and virtue, while the five (senses) and fifty (days leading to Pentecost) signify spiritual knowledge and love (cf. KG 2.39).

2,40.Ο των τεσσαρων αριθμος συμμετοχος του αυτου μυστηριου {συμμυστης} τωι των τεσσαρακοντα? και εν τουτωι εστιν η θεωρια αυτων.

2.41

 

II,41.  THERE is one who, without the four and the five, knows the forty and the fifty.


Perhaps an allusion to Christ as Second Person of the Trinity and pre-incarnate Divine Word (cf. KG 2.37) , Who while not composed of the four elements or possessing the five corporeal senses, nevertheless has knowledge of both praktike (the forty) and contemplative knowledge and love (the fifty).

2,41. Εις εστι ος ανευ των τεσσαρων και των πεντε δυναται γιγνωσκειν το των τεσσαρακοντα και των πεντηκοντα μυστηριον.

2.42

 

II,42.  WHO will come to the holy Pascha, and who will know the Holy Pentecost? 


Pascha and Pentecost: cf. Ad Mon 40 - 43: Pascha is passing over from vices; Pentecost is both resurrection of the soul (Ad Mon 40) and love (Ad Mon 42). :On Pentecost versus Babel cf. KG 4.53,  4.54.

2,42. Τις ερχεται εις το αγιον πασχα και τις γιγνωσκει την αγιαν πεντηκοστην.

2.43

 

II,43.  THERE is one who was left [behind] there; but he will also be found there. (? cf. Jn 13.26)


Is this an allusion to Judas and his hoped-for salvation in the apokatastasis (KG 3.9)?

2,43. Εις εστιν ος εν ταυτηι κατελειφθη και ο αυτος εν τηι αυτηι ευρεθησεται.

2.44

 

II,44.  NOT all the saints eat the bread, but all drink of the chalice. (? cf. Jn 13.26, Mt 26.27)


Cf KG 1,23  for the angelic bread of spiritual knowledge of which only certain saints partake. As Bunge notes (Briefe, 352) Evagrius interprets the spiritual  “chalice in two ways.  While it can refer to spiritual knowledge of corporeals and incorporeals as well as the logoi of providence and judgment (Sch.104 on Prov 9.2; Letter 29, 1-2; cf. Ad Monachos 114), it seems in this context to refer the mixed cup of sinners and saints that will be unmixed in the world to come (Sch 3 On Ps.74.9).  See also KG 5,32. Or if KG 2.43 is an allusion to Judas, might this refer to the bread he took as a sign of his imminent betrayal (Jn 13.26) and the reception of the chalice by all the disciples (Mt 26.27)?  It would, however, be very unusual to include Judas among the saints,” of this kephalaion.

2,44. [161] Ου παντες οι αγιοι τον αρτον φαγουσι το δε ποτηριον παντες πιουσι.

2.45

 

II,45.  THE organs of sense and the nous both partake of sensible [things]; but the nous alone has intellection of the noetic, and it thus becomes a seer of objects and of logoi. Cf. Evag Prayer, 57-58.; KG 2.30.

[S1]  The sense organs and the nous share in sensible [things], but the only the nous has  understanding of both both the noetic  and sensible, indeed, it becomes a seer of both objects and their logoi.

2,45. Αἴσθησις μὲν καὶ νοῦς μερίζονται τὰ αἰσθητά· νοῦς δὲ μόνος ἔχει τὰ νοητά· καὶ γὰρ τῶν πραγμάτων καὶ τῶν λόγων ὁ αὐτὸς γίνεται θεατής. [Muyld, Evag 20, pp. 59-59]

[S1] Τα αισθητηρια και ο νους διαμεριζουσι {̣} τα αισθητα ο δε νους μονος εχει επιστημην των νοητων οτι και των πραγματων και των λογων των πραγματων εποπτης εστιν.

2.46

 

II,46.  THE art apart from the artisan contains his work; and the wisdom of God contains all.  And just as one who separates art from artisan by speaking [thus] breaks [the artist's] work, so also one who in his thought separates wisdom from God destroys all.


God is in the art”  of creation: KG 1.3

2,46. Η του τεχνιτου τεχνη περιγραφει το εργον αυτου η δε του θεου σοφια περιγραφει το παν? και ωσπερ ο αφοριζων την τεχνην του τεχνιτου διαλυει το εργον αυτου ουτως και ο τολμων εν τηι διανοιαι αυτου αφοριζειν την του θεου σοφιαν αυτου φθειρει το παν.

2.47

 

II,47. THE Trinity is not reckoned among the contemplation of sensible or noetic [things], and still less is it counted among objects: because the former is a composite and the latter are creatures; whereas the Blessed Trinity alone is essential knowledge. (cf. Letter 28 Frk. P. 586, l. 9-11)

2,47. Η αγια Τριας ουκ ελλογειται εν των αισθητων τε και των νοητων θεωριαι? τα μεν γαρ εστι φθαρτα τα δε δεκτικα της παραλλαγης, η δε αγια τριας μονη γνωσις ουσιωδης εστι. [S1 The holy Trinity 24 is not counted with the contemplation of the sensibles25 and the noetics, because those are corruptible26 and these are susceptible to changes; but only the Holy Trinity is essential knowledge.]

2.48

 

II,48.  THE nous that advances in its own path meets the holy powers; but if it [advances] in that of the instrument of the soul, it falls on demons. 


The nous is capable of contemplation, where angels are met (Prak 56); whereas the soul is subject to passion aroused by the demons. Explained in Sch 2 on Ps 107.3(1): v.3Awake, psalter[y] and harp; I will arise at dawn; “And the nous rejecting ignorance is ‘raised up’, [likewise] the soul [rejecting] vice.  But I call ‘soul’ the portion of the soul subject to passion, which is the thumikon and the epithumetikon.  On the fate of the soul see also: Sch 10 on Ps 1.5.(1)Sch.4 on Ps 3.7; Sch. 275 on Prov. 24.22

2,48. [163] Ει ο νους εν τηι ιδιαι οδωι τρεχει συνανται ταις αγιας δυναμεσι, ει δε εν τηι των του σωματος επιθυμιων οδωι συνανται τοις δαιμοσι.


2. τοῦ νοῦ μὲν σύμβολόν ἐστι τὸ ψαλτήριον, τῆς δὲ ψυχῆς ἡ κιθάρα. καὶ νοῦς μὲν ἐγείρεται ἀποβάλλων ἄγνοιαν, ψυχὴ δὲ κακίαν· ψυχὴν δὲ λέγω τὸ παθητικὸν μέρος τῆς ψυχῆς, ὅπερ ἐστὶ τὸ θυμικὸν καὶ τὸ ἐπιθυμητικόν. [= Pitra 107:3(1)]

2.49

 

II,49. HE who is first to take the ear of grain is the first of those who have the grain; and he who takes the second ear is the first of those who have the first ear; and he who takes the third ear is the first of those who have the second ear; and so on with all the others, until the one who abandons [both] the last ear and first - he who ultimately lacks the power of the grain.  (Cf. KG 2.25; KG 2.26)

2,49. Ος προυλαβε τον του κοκκου σταχυν πρωτευει τουτων οι ελαβον -- τον κοκκον καο ος ελαβε τον δετερον σταχυν πρωτευει τουτων οι ελαβον τον τριτον -- κοκκον και ουτως εστι διαδοχη -- -- -- εως την του κοκκου δυναμιν υψωθηναι.

2.50

 

II,50.  WHEN those who give birth will have ceased to give birth, then also the guardians of the house will tremble; (Eccl 12:3) then also the two heads (?of the pillars of the Temple-1Ki 7:41; ) will decorate with rose and linen. (Cf Esth. 1:6; wedding decorations)


Cf. Scholion 378 On Proverbs.where linen and purple are the logoi of earth and sea for the reasoning soul, and the contemplation of beings and the Trinity for the nous.  Reference to the scarlet and linen of the priestly vestments, (cf note on KG 4.22) recurs throughout Exodus 28-39 (eg Ex 26.31, 26.13, 27.6, etc). In The Life of Moses 2.195-196: Gregory of Nyssa allegorically interprets the mixture of scarlet and linen (ἐρύθημα τῇ βύσσῳ μίγνυται) of the priestly vestments.  In Homily 13 on Exodus Origen identifies the the color red with both the fire of right teaching , and purifying fire in the age to come (3). Twisted linen represents "abstinence, vigils, and the exertion of meditation" (5).  Linen is similarly a symbol of purity in Homily 4 (6.3) on Leviticus, and of Christ's incarnation (Homily 9.(2.3) on Leviticus) .   :

2,50. [165] Οταν αι τικτουσαι παυσωνται τεκειν τοτε και οι του οικου φυλακες κινηθησονται και οι στυλοι αυτου ασθενησουσιν και κλιθησονται? τοτε και -- αι δυο κεφαλαι ροδον και βυσσον περιδεθησονται.

2.51

 

II,51.  THE chariot of knowledge - (these are) fire and air; but the chariot of the ignorance - air and water.


This is an allusion to angelic knowledge versus demonic ignorance.  In  KG 1.68  Evagrius explains that angels are composed of fire and nous, while demons are of made frozen air and thumos.  Also KG  6.25; Scholion 60 on Prov. 5.9.

2,51. Αρμα της γνωσεως το τε πυρ και ο αηρ αρμα δε της αγνοιας ο αηρ {} τε και το υδωρ.

2.52

 

II,52.  AMONG demons, one kind are called the knowers of noetic [things] while others have obtained [or stolen] knowledge of the knowable. 

2,52. Των δαιμονων ? οι μεν τα νοητα γνωστικα ελεγον οι δε την του γνωστου γνωσιν αφειλον αυτου.

 

 

II,53.  THERE is only one who is is adorable, he who solely has the sole [-begotten].


Evag.: Sch 5 On Ps 131.7(2): We adore the flesh of the Savior not because of its nature, but because the Christ is in it. The flesh is adorable because of the Christ; the Christ [is adorable] because of God the Word within him.”

2,53. Εις μονος προσκυνητος ο ων μονοειδως.

 

 

II,54.  KNOWLEDGE - it is not in the regions of ignorance that it advances, but in the regions of knowledge. 

2,54. Η γνωσις ου τρεχει εν τοις της αγνοιας αλλα εν τοις της γνωσεως τοποις.

2.53

 

II,55.  SOME have attracted ignorance to themselves by their will, and others involuntarily.  The second are called captives, and first are named captors: the captors have come, and they have taken captives. (Job 1:15; cf.(?) Eph. 4:8)


Demons who choose ignorance make their captives ignorant: cf. Ad Mon 23-24:: Sch 7 On Ps 11.2.  Christ does the opposite: He raises his captives [...] from vice and ignorance to virtue and knowledge (Sch 13 On Ps 67.19)..

2,55. Των λογικων οι μεν θεληματι αυτων την αγνοιαν προσειλκοντο οι δε ου θεληματι αυτων? και οι μεν δευτεροι αιχμαλωτοι λεγονται οι δε πρωτοι αιχμαλωτιζοντες αφ' ων ο σωτηρ ημων ηιχμαλωτευσεν αιχμαλωσιαν {Εφ 4.8}.

2.56

 

II,56.  THE nous teaches the soul, and the soul the body; and only  the man of God (Deut 33:1) knows the man of knowledge.

2,56. Ο νους ουν ? διδασκει την ψυχην, η δε ψυχη το σωμα και μονος ανθρωπος του θεου τον της γνωσεως ανθρωπον γιγνωσκειν δυναται.

2.57

 

II,57.  WE have learned that there are three high altars: of which the third is simple and the other two are composite.  The wisdom which concerns the second altar makes known the wisdom of the third, and that which concerns the first altar is prior to that which is in the second.


In Sch. 4 On Psalm 25 Evagrius defines the nous as a reasoning altar .  In that scholion he describes several of its functions, including contemplation of corporeals and incorporeals.  These probably correspond to the first and second high altars of this kephalaion, with contemplation of the Blessed Trinity as the third.

2,57. Τρια θυσιατηρια ? του υψους μανθανομεν οτι εστιν, ων το μεν μονοειδες και ασυνθετον τα δε δυο αλλα συνθετα.

2.58

 

II,58.  THE three altars have been given to those who now dwell in the width; but those who dwell in the length and in the depth, (cf. ? Eph 3:18) will be given [the altars] in the world to come.


Wideness” is the effect on the nous of true gnosis Sch 19 on Ps 17; and (on the heart) of the “logoi of the commandments” Sch. 14 on Psalm 118.

2,58. Τοις τονυν εν τωι πλατει οικουσι δεδοται τρια θυσιαστηρια, τοις δε εν μηκει τε και βαθει οικουσιν εν τωι μελλοντι αιωνι δοθησεται. ?

2.59

 

II,59.  “THE just judgement(2Th 1:5) of our Christ, is made known by the fact of the transformation of bodies, of regions and of worlds; his forbearance, [is made known] by those who strive against virtue; and his mercy, especially by those who are the undeserving recipients of his providence. [p85]

2,59. [173] Μαρτυρες της του κυριου ημων Χ. μακροθυμιας εισιν οι τηι αρετηι αντικειμενοι, κηρυκες δε του μεγαλου ελεους αυτου ων προνοει αναξιων.

 

 

II,60. THE table of the Christ (Lk 22:30) is God, and the table of those who are exalted is the incorporeal and corporal nature. 

2,60. Η του Χ. τραπεζα εστιν ο θεος ο πατηρ, τραπεζα δε των αδελφων αυτου εν ελεει εστιν αυτος προς τον πατερα αυτου.

 

 

II,61. THE contemplation of the incorporeals which we knew in the beginning without matter, we now know [while] linked to matter; but that which concerns bodies we have never seen without matter. 

2,61. Τηνπρωτην θεωριαν την πνευματικην εν ταις αγιαις δυναμεσιν ορωμεν την δε δευτεραν την φυσκην εν τοις ανθρωποις.

2.62

 

II,62. WHEN the noes receive the contemplation that concerns them, then the entire nature of the bodies will also be withdrawn; and thus the contemplation concerning nature will become immaterial. 

2,62. [175] Οταν οι των αγιων νοες δεξωνται την θεωριαν αυτων τοτε και η των σωματων παχυτης εκ μεσου αρθησεται τε και η ορασις λοιπον πνευματικη εσται.

2.63

 

II,63. AMONG [different kinds of] knowledge, the one will never become material, and the other never immaterial; but that which is material will also be able to become immaterial. 

2,63 Των γνωσεων αι μεν εισιν ανυλοι, αι δε εν υλαις γιγνωσκοται? η δε της αγιας τριαδος γνωσις πασας υπερβαλλει.

2.64

 

II,64.  AMONG the beings some have come into being before the judgement, and others after the judgement. And no one has provided information on subject of the first [beings], but he who has been on Horeb has given an account of the second [beings].  [p87] 


The judgement is the providential creation of matter after the fall of the primordial first beings.  Moses, who was on Horeb, describes the creation of the material universe and its “second beings in Genesis.

2,64. [s1] Η παντων των γεγονοτων αποκαλυψις αγραφος εστι και εγγραφος? αγραφος μεν η παρα του πνευματος τωι αποκεκαλυμμενη, εγγραφος δε η δια του πνευματος εν Χωρεβ δεδομενη.


Περὶ μὲν τῶν προτέρων ὁ μηνύσων οὐδείς, περὶ δὲ τῶν δευτέρων ὁ ἐν Χωρὴβ ἐξηγήσατο. [Partial Greek: Barsanuphius, Let.600. PG 86, Ia, p. 893 A  (cf. Peterson B.N.J. IV, 1923, p. 6)]

2.65

 

II,65.  BY those who have attained to the perfect achievement of evil it is possible for us to understand the multitude of worlds that have come into being; indeed, it is not possible for us to attain to perfect ignorance all at once, because it is not possible to attain [all at once to perfect] knowledge. 

2,65. Απο τουτων οι θεληματι αυτων εις την τελειον κακιαν ηλθον μανθανομεν το μεγεθος της του θεου μακροθυμιας, και απο τουτων οι αγαθωι θεληματι αυτων αγωνιζονται εις το κατορθουσθαι τοις καλοις μανθανομεν το υπερπερασσευον του κυριου ημων ελεος.

 

 

II,66.  THE genesis of the logikoi does not make known the genesis of bodies, rather it introduces the nature of names; and the composition of the former demonstrates the difference in rank of the latter.

2,66. [177] Εν ταις της των σωματων αυξησεως διαφοραις ορωμεν μυστηριον της διαφορας της των λογικων αυξησεως και εν τωι φυσικωι της συνθεσεως αυτων την διαφοραν της διαταξεως τουτων.

 

 

II,67.  THE separate will become inseparable when they receive the contemplation of the things that have separated them. 

2,67. Οταν οι ανθρωποι εν τηι των ουκ εσχισμενων θεωριαι γενωνται και ουτοι ανευ σχισματος εσονται μετ' αυτων.

2.68

 

II,68.  IT is said that those on high possess light bodies, and those below possess heavy [bodies]: and above the former are others who are lighter than they; while below the latter are those heavier than they. 

2,68. Ανω λεγονται οτι εισιν οι κεκτηνται σωματα ? ταχεα και φωτεινα κατω δε οι κεκτηνται σωματα βαρεα κατω δε τουτων οι κεκτηνται σωματα σκοτεινα και ακαθαρτα.

2.69

 

II,69.  IT is not the first distinction of the logikoi and the coming into being of bodies that the Holy Spirit has made know to us; rather, it is the present distinction between the logikoi and the transformation of bodies that He has revealed to us. 

2,69. [s1] Το αγιον πνευμα δια Μωσεως ου περι της των ουρανιων διαφορας απεκαλυψεν ημιν αλλα περι της των εν τουτωι τωι κοσμωι γεγονοτων διαφορας εμηνυσεν ημιν.


Τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον οὐ τὴν πρώτην τῶν λογικῶν διαίρεσιν, οὐδὲ τὴν πρώτην οὐσίαν τῶν σωμάτων ἐξηγήσατο [Bars. Let. 600]

2.70

 

II,70.  IF God has done everything with wisdom, (Ps 103:24) there is nothing created that does not each bear the imprint [“symbol”] of luminaries. 

2,70. Ει ο θεος παντα α εκτισεν εν σοφιαι εκτισε ουδεν εστι των αυτωι εκτισμενων ο μη καθ' εν εκαστον λυχνιου τυπον παριστησι.

 

 

II,71. THE contemplation of incorporeals remains in the undescended; but as for that which concerns bodies, it appears partly capable of descent and partly incapable of descent. 

2,71. [179] Η των ασωματων θεωρια ουκ αναγεται και καταγεται η δε των σωματων θεωρια καταγεται τε και αναγεται.

2.72

 

II,72.  IF the knowledge of those who are not immediately expelled is primary, it is evident that light bodies precede heavy ones. 

2,72. Ει η των πνευματικων γνωσις προτερα και τιμιωτερα εστι της των σωματικων γνωσεως δηλοντι και τα σωματα αυτων ταχεα τε και φωτεινα παρ' εκεινα.

2.73

 

II,73.  JUST as He Who by His Word has [indeed] revealed to us matters concerning the world to come, so He has not explained to us the coming into being of bodies and incorporeals. And in the same way He who has taught us concerning the creation of this world has not made known the passage of bodies and incorporeals: rather, he has explained their distinction[s] and their  transformation[s].  

2,73. Ωσπερ ος τωι λογωι αυτου περι των του μελλοντος αιωνος πραγματων απεκαλυψεν ημιν ου περι σωματων και ασωματων διηγησατο ουτως και περι της τουτου τον κοσμου γενεσεως γνωριζων ημιν εν ορει Σινα ου περι του του μελλοντος αιωνοςκαλλους απεκαλυψεν ημιν.

2.74

 

II,74.  WHO has known the first distinction and who has seen the coming into being of bodies and these varied worlds, on which some holy powers have been fed and which have ruled over a blessed realm? 

2,74. Τις διενοηθη τον πρωτον αφορισμον και τις εγνω την πρωτην κινησιν και οπως οι λογικοι δια των κοπων αυτων επαναστρεφουσιν προς την κληρονομιαν αυτων.

2.75

 

II,75.  AS much as the judge has judged those to be judged, so much also has he made worlds; and he who knows the number of the judgements knows also the number of worlds. 

2,75. Η των λογικων παραβασις ηναγκασε τον θεον γενεσθαι αυτοις κριτην. οι δε τελειουντες τα δικαια της της νιοθεοιας αγαπης επαναστρεφονσι προς την κληρονομιαν.

 

 

II,76.  JUST as varied orders distinguish the logikoi from one another, so also the places that suit the bodies and are joined to them [also distinguish the logikoi]

2,76. Ωσπερ αι της καταστασεως διαφοραι χωριζουσιν τους λογικους αλληλων ουτως και αι της πολιτειας αυτων διαφοραι χωριζουσι τα σωματα αυτων απ' αλληλων.

2.77

 

II,77. THE last judgement will not manifest the transformation of bodies; rather, it will make known their destruction.

2,77. Η εσχατη του δικαιου κριτου κρισις ουκ αλλοιωσιν των σωματων ποιησει αλλα την παχυτητα αυτων εκ μεσου αρει επιδιδουσα αυτοις δυναμιν ωστε οια τε ειναι επιμειναι εν τηι κληρονομιαι η της κατακρισεως η της βασιλειας των ουρανων.

2.78

 

II,78.  EACH of the orders of celestial powers has been constituted either completely of those above or completely of those below, or of those above and those below.

2,78. Ἕκαστον τάγμα τῶν οὐρανίων δυνάμεων, ἢ ὅλον ἐκ τῶν κάτω, ἢ ὅλον ἐκ τῶν ἄνω, ἢ ἐκ τῶν ἄνω καὶ ἐκ τῶν κάτω συνέστηκε. [PG 4]


[S1] Εκαστον ταγμα των ουρανιων δυναμεων η ολον εκ των κατω η ολον εκ των ανω η εκ των ανω και εκ των κατω συνεστηκε.

2.79

 

II,79.  THAT which advances towards knowledge approaches the excellent transformation of bodies; but that which [advances] towards ignorance approaches the evil transformation. 

2,79. Ο εν τηι της γνωσεως οδωι τρεχων εν ανακαινωσει καθ' εκαστην ημεραν τρεχει, ο δε εν τηι της αγνοιας οδωι τρεχων απο της καταστασεως αυτου μακραν γινεται.

2.80

 

II,80.  VARIED is the contemplation of this organon of the soul; highly varied is that of the organa of the celestial [beings], and [still] more [varied] than the latter is the contemplation that concerns the logikoi, because the former are habitations of Knowers, and the latter are receptive of the Blessed Trinity.


cf KG 1.42, God is most present in the heavenly powers

2,80. Διακρισεως μεν εστιν η του της ψυχης οργανου θεωρια πολλων δε διακρισεων η των πνευματικων οργανων θεωρια μαλλον δε παρα ταυτα η των πνευματικων αυτων θεωρια διοτι δεκτικη εστι της της αγιας τριαδος γνωσεως.

 

 

II,81. KNOWLEDGE has engendered Knowledge, and it always engenders the Knowers. 

2,81. Η γνωσις την γνωσιν τικτει και αυτη εκτενως τους γνωστικους τικτει εις το γιγνωσκειν.

2.82

 

II,82.  IT is not the bodies of spiritual powers,  but only [the bodies] of souls that are naturally able to be nourished by the world that is similar to them.


Cf KG 2.88: 2.74; knowledge is the food of the soul: Prak. 56.; for virtues as food: (Great)Letter 64.52

2,82. Κατα την των λογικων διαφοραν εστι και η των τροφων διαφορα εν τοις κοσμοις αυτων.?

2.83

 

II,83.  JUST as the senses are changed by receiving different qualities, so too the nous is changed by constantly gazing upon [richly-]diverse contemplations.


The nous is stamped or imprinted by diverse contemplations and temptations (Thoughts/Peri.Log.2). Only elevated, uniform contemplations do not imprint or change the nous: sch. 1 on Psalm 140:2(1) ; Skemmata 6.

2.83 Ὥσπερ αἱ αἰσθήσεις ἀλλοιοῦται διαφόρων ἀντιλαμβανόμεναι ποιοτήτων, οὕτω καὶ ὁ νοῦς ἀλλοιοῦται ποικίλαις θεωρίαις ἐνατενίζων ἀεί. [Hr-nfg 230=E7]


[S1] Ωσπερ εν τοις αισθητηριοις η αισθησις ταις των ποιοτητων τε και χρωματων διαφοραις μεταβαλλεται {ποιουται} ουτως και ο νους μεταβαλλεται {ποιουται} εις τας των θεωριων διαφορας επιβλεπων.[S1] Just as in the organs of sense, the senses are changed by different qualities and colors, so too the nous is changed when it gazes upon different contemplations

2.84

 

II,84.  THERE was a time when the Lord was judge only of the living; but there will never be a time when he will judge only the dead; and there will be again a time when he will judge only the living (cf.Acts 10:42; 2Tim 4:1; 1Pt 4:5)

Σ1 2,84. Ην οτε ο κυριος ημων των ζωντων μονον ην κριτης αλλ' ουκ εσται οτε των νεκρων μονον κριτης εσται? εσται δε αυτις οτε των ζωντων μονον κριτης εσται.

2.85

 

II,85.  IF the living are receptive of increase and decrease, it is thus evident that these are they who are the opposite of those who are dead who [also] receive these same things.  And if this is so, then there will again be new and varied bodies, and worlds will be created that are suitable to them.


On the creation of new worlds after successive judgments: Sch 275 On Prov. 24.22; Sch 8 on Ps 1.5. Cf scholia 1 on Ps 16.2; 5 on Ps 49.4; 4 & 4b on Ps 49.6; 8 on Ps 93.15. KG 3.483.503.51. also cf KG 1.11 1.65

Σ1 2,85. Ει οι ζωντες της τε αρετης και της κακιας δεκτικοι εισιν δηλον οτι οι εναντιως τουτοις εχοντες νεκροι εισιν οι ποτε κατα την αυτων προαιρεσιν της ζωης εξεπεσον.

 

 

II,86.  THOSE who are outside - their bread is not showbread, and their drink is full of flies; but those who are inside - their bread is showbread, and their drink is unspoiled. (cf. Ex 25:50; Heb. 9:2)

2,86. Ων η ? αναστροφη εξωθεν εστιν τουτων ο αρτος ουκ εστι προθεσεως και το ποτηριον αυτων μυριων πληρες? ων δε η αναστροφη εσωθεν εστιν ο αρτος προθεσεως και το ποτηριον αυτων αβλαβες.

2.87

 

II,87.  TEMPORAL is the movement of bodies, but timeless the transformation of the incorporeals.

2,87. Χρονου μεν εστιν η των σωματων κινησις αχρονος δε η των ασωματων τροπη.


[??] χρόνος ἐστὶ τὸ συμπαρεκτεινόμενον τῇ συστάσει τοῦ κόσμου διάστημα, ἐν ᾧ πᾶσα παραμετρεῖται κίνησις, εἴτε ἀστέρων εἴτε ζῴων, εἴτε οὑτινοσοῦν τῶν κινουμένων [FP 39.3.0]

2.88

 

II,88.  THE contemplation of this sensible world -  it is not only to human beings that it is given as nourishment, but also to reasoning natures.


Cf KG 2.82; 2.74; for knowledge as the food of the soul: Prak. 56.; For virtues as food: (Great)Letter 64.52

2,88. Η τουτου του κοσμου του ορατου θεωρια ου μονον τοις ανθρωποις εις τροφην δεδοται αλλα και τοις αλλοις λογικοις

2.89

 

II,89.  HE who alone is seated at the right [hand] of the Father - [He] alone has knowledge of the right [hand]. (Ps. 109:1; Acts 2:33)


For right as Monad and Unity (i.e essential knowledge) see KG 4.21. Cf. Sch. 19 in PS. 17.36The one seated at the right of the Father - this one is called right [hand]; also Sch. 5 in Ps 44.5.3.the right hand of God is the Christ and [the] divine word in him. See also Sch 6 in Ps.47.11.3;  Sch.4  in Ps 73.11; Sch. 8 in Ps 79.18;

2,89. Ος μονος καθηται εκ δεξιας του πατρος αυτος κεκτηται την της δεξιας γνωσιν.


Sch. 19 in PS. 17.36. ιθ´.Ὁ ἐν δεξιᾷ καθήμενος τοῦ Πατρὸς, οὗτος καλεῖται δεξιά.

Sch. 5 in Ps 44.3 5.3 δεξιὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐστιν ὁ Χριστὸς καὶ θεὸς λόγος ἐν αὐτῷ

2.90

 

II,90.  THEY who have seen the light of the two luminaries, (Mt. 17:3; Mk 8:4; Lk 9:30)  have seen the first and blessed light that we will see in Christ, when by an excellent change we will rise before him.


The two luminaries are Moses and Elijah at the transfiguration. Cf. KG 4.23 & question on Kingdom of God vs. spiritual body of Christ]KG 4.41

2,90. Οι εωρακοτες το των δυο πνευματικων λαμπαδων φως αυτοι αξιωθησονται οραν εκεινο το πρωτον φως το των μακαρισμων ο ορωιμεν τηι του κυριου ημων Ι. Χ. χαριτι αξιωθεντες της των σωματων ημων ανακαινωσεως.

 

 

THE END of THE SECOND
(Century of the Kephalaia Gnostica)

 

 

 

   

03_KG

 

 

 

  

 

THE THIRD CENTURY_

 

  

 

3.01

 

III,1. THE Father alone knows the Christ, and the Son alone [knows] the Father (Mt.11:27), the latter as unique [?only-begotten?] in the Unity, and the former as Monad and Unity. . For unique see also KG 1,12;  2.3;  4,16.

3,1. Μονος ο πατηρ γιγνωσκει τον Χ. και αυτος ο υιος μονος γιγνωσκει τον πατερα· ουτος μεν ως μονοειδης μονος εν τηι μοναδι εκεινος δε κατα την της μοναδος ενωσιν.

3.02

 

III,2. THE Christ is he who alone has within himself the Unity and has received the judgement of the logikoi (cf Jn 5.22: ...all judgment to the Son. (Sch 4-4b On Ps 49.6(2)

3,2. Χριστος εστιν εν ωι η μονας πασα ενεστι και την λογικης φυσεως ταπεινωσιν εδεξατο.

 

 

III,3. THE Unity is what is now known only by Christ, he whose knowledge is essential (Sch 7 On Ps 44.8(2-3)

3,3. Μονας εστιν ητις τανυν μονον υπο του Χ. γιγνωσκεται ου γνωσις συσιωδης εστιν.

3.04

 

III,4. IT is proper to angels that they are nourished at all times by the contemplation of beings, to men that they are not [so nourished] at all times; and to demons that they are not [so nourished] at proper or improper times. (Cf. Prak 56; Sch 22 On Prov. 2.12)

3,4. Των μεν αγγελων εστι το παντι χρονωι τρεφεσθαι ταις των οντων θεωριαις των δε ανθρωπων επι του καιρου των δε δαιμονων ουδαμως.

3.05

 

III,5. THE noes of celestial powers are pure and full of knowledge, and their bodies are lights that shine on those who approach them.


Like Origen. Evagrius believed the stars to be luminous angelic beings. For variations in the luminosity of stars KG 3.37 and KG 4.31; for their role in enlightening the ignorant KG 3.62 and 3.84; for their role in chastising the negligent KG 4.29 and KG 6.88.  Cf. Prayer 80.

3,5. Οι τε των ουρανιων δυναμεων νοες καθαροι εισι πληρεις της αληθινης γνωσεως και τα σωματα αυτων αυτων φως εκλαμποντα παρ' οις χαριτι αποκαλυψεις γιγνονται.

3.06

 

III,6. THE naked nous is that which, by means of the contemplation which concerns it, is united to knowledge of the Trinity. (On naked nous: KG 3.6. Naked nous and epektasis: KG 1.65)

3,6. Νους γυμνος εστιν ος ετελειωθη εν τηι αυτου ορασει και ηξιωθη της της αγιας τριαδος θεωριας κοινωνωιν.

3.07

 

III,7. EACH of the changes is established to feed the logikoi and those which feed [on it] attain to the excellent change; but those which do not feed [on it] attain to the bad change.

3,7. Το των ανακαινωσεων διαφορον τουτο επιστευθη το τρεφειν τους λογικους, οι δε τρεφονται προς την αρετην πλησιαζουσι, οι δε μη τρεφονται εις τροπας υστερουσας μεταβαλλονται.

3.08

 

III,8. THE nous which possesses the last robe is that which knows only the contemplation of all the second beings.

3,8. Νους ος κεκτηται το εσχατον ενδυμα εστιν ουτος ος την δευτεραν θεωριαν την φυσικην εχει.

3.9

 

III,9. IN the world to come the bodies of ignorance will be surpassed, and those which will follow the change will receive an increase of fire and air; and these that are below will concentrate henceforth on knowledge, if ‘the houses of the impious receive purification’ (Prov.14:9) and that ‘today and tomorrow’ the Christ ‘performs miracles and on the third day it is accomplished’. (Lk 13:32)


Evagrius describes the healing transformations leading to apokatastasis -, restoration of all to union with God (note that Evagrius does not use this technical term). Evagrius interprets Prov. 14.9, cited here as meaning,, “They become pure in order to see God, for this is the blessed end reserved for every reasoning nature,”(Sch 136 On Prov 14.9) The demons, characterized by ignorance, freezing cold, and water (KG  6.25), will be changed for the better by the angelic elements of fire and air, (KG 1.68, )and will inexoribly be made to “concentrate henceforth on knowledge” (cf. Sch 135 On Prov 14.7).  Also Sch 5 On Ps 62.10-11

3,9. Εν τωι μελλοντι αιωνι η των λογικων αγνοια τελευτησεται περισσευσει δε εν αυτοις η των διαφορων γνωσις εξ ων ευφροσυνη τε και λυπη ανατελει, ευφροσυνη μεν τοις σπουδαιοις λυπη δε τοις αμεελουσιν.

 

 

III,10. THE nous which is imperfect is that which again has need of the contemplation which is known by corporeal nature.

3,10. Νους ατελης εστιν ος ετι χρειαν εχει του πληρωθηναι εν τε τηι των φυσεων των κτισματων συνεσει και εν τηι πρωτηι θεωριαι ͅ ατινα εν τουτωι τωι οργανωι κτασθαι δυναται.

3.11

 

III,11. CORPOREAL nature has received the manifold wisdom (Eph. 3:10) of Christ; but of him it is not receptive. But incorporeal nature displays the wisdom of the Unity and is receptive of the Unity.

3,11. Την πολυποικιλον σοφιαν το του Χ. σωμα εδεξατο εν ωι ανετειλεν ημιν και η της αγιας τριαδος γνωσις.

3.12

 

III,12. PERFECT nous is that which is able to easily receive the essential knowledge.

νοῦς τέλειός ἐστιν ὁ τὴν οὐσιώδη γνῶσιν ῥαδίως δυνάμενος ὑποδέξασθαι [FP 23.1]


3,12. Νους τελειος εστιν ος την ουσιωδη γνωσιν ραδιως οιος τε ρστι δεχεσθαι.

3.13

 

III,13. WE have known the wisdom of the Unity, united to the nature that is below it; but the Unity itself cannot be seen, linked to some of the beings; and because of this the incorporeal nous sees the Holy Trinity in those which are not bodies.

3,13. Την της αγιας τριαδος σοφιαν δια της ςαταβασεως αυτης της προς την λογικην φυσιν εγνωμεν και εν αυτηι εδεξαμεδα τας αποκρυφους του πατρος αποκαλυψεις τε και τους τελειους νομους πνευματικους.

 

 

III,14. DEFICIENT soul is that whose passionate power  inclines towards vain [things].

ψυχή ἐστιν ἀτελὴς ἧς ἡ παθητικὴ δύναμις πρὸς τὰ μάταια νένευκεν [FP 41.1.0]


3,14. [199] Ψυχη ζημιωθεισα {υστερουσα εστιν ης η παθητικη δυαμις προς το μεταιον μετακλινει.

3.15

 

III,15. IF the perfection of the nous is immaterial knowledge, as it is said, and if immaterial knowledge is solely the Trinity, it is evident that in perfection there will not remain anything of matter. And if that is so, the nous, forevermore naked will come to vision of the Trinity.


On the immaterial nous at prayer: Prayer 119; On naked nous: KG 3.6.

3,15. Ει η του νοος τελεοτης γνωσις πνευματικη εστιν ως λεγουσιν οι πατερες οτι ο στεφανος ατου εστιν η της αγιας τριαδος γνωσις δηλον οτι ο ταυτα υστερων μακραν απεστι της τελειοτητος.

 

 

III,16. PERFECT soul is one whose passionate power acts according to nature.

ψυχή τελεία ἐστίν, ἧς ἡ παθητικὴ δύναμις ἐνεργεῖ κατὰ φύσιν [FP 41.2.0]


3,16. Ψυχη τελειος εστιν ης η καθητικη δυναμις κατα φυσιν ͅ ενεργει.

3.17

 

III,17. THESE who have attained to immaterial contemplation, are also in the (same) state; but they are not those who are in the same state who are from now on also in immaterial contemplation. Indeed, it is possible that they are again in the contemplation that concerns the noetics, which also requires a naked nous , if it previously has also seen it nakedly. On naked nous: KG 3.6.

3,17. Οι εν τηι πρωτηι θεωριαι γενομενοι και εν τι αρχικι καταστασει εστασιν οι δε εν τηι δευτεραι θεωριαι εν τηι δευτεραι θεωριαι εν τηι φυσικηι καταστασει εστασιν οι δε εν ταις της αρετης αναστοφαις καθεστωτες ρν τηι της καθαροτητος καταστασει εισι και τριτοι τηι ταξει ονομαζονται.

3.18

 

III,18. TORMENT is the fiery suffering which purifies the passible part of the soul.

3,18. [201] Βασανισμος εστιν η δια του πυρος λυπη η εν κρισει καθαριζουσα το της ψυχης παθητικον.

3.19

 

III,19. THE first and second contemplations possess in common that they [both] have a naked vision, but especially this: that one is immaterial and the other material.


For first and second natural contemplation: KG 2.2; KG 2.3;. KG 3.61 On the imprinting effect of diverse contemplations and temptations: KG 2.83; cf..Thoughts/Peri.Log.2, Prayer 57.& 58. Only elevated, uniform contemplations do not imprint or change the nous: sch. 1 on Psalm 140:2(1) ; Skemmata 6.

3,19. Ως η πρωτη θεωρια γυμνου νοος χρειαν εχει ουτως και η δευτερα θεωρια της γυμνοτητος αυτου καιπερ διαφερουσα της πρωτης τωι σκοπωι αυτης.

3.20

 

III,20. THE change of the organa is the passage of bodies to bodies, according to the degree of the order of those who are joined to them.

3,20. Η των εργαζομενων σωματων μεταμορφωσις εστιν ανακαινωσις επ του σαρκικου εις το πνευματικον κατα το της καταστασεως αυτων μετρον.

3,21

 

III,21. THIS is common to both second and third contemplations - that they are material: but especially this, that one has a naked nous and the same order; and the other is with bodies and in various orders.


As above on KG 3.19 for different contemplations and their effect on the nous. On naked nous: KG 3.6.

3,21. Η δευτερα και η τριτη θεωρια καινως την των κτισματων γνωσιν κεκτηνται· η δε της ετερας προτερα νουν γυμνον κεκτηται.

3.22

 

III,22. THE first movement of the logikoi is the separation of the nous from the Unity that is in it.


On creation(s) and fall (movement/kinesis): cf. KG 1.10 & note; 1.50; 1.51; 5.24; 6.19; 6.20; 6.85.

3,22. Η πρωτη της λογικης φυσεως κινησις αφορισμος τωι νωι αυτης απο της ιδιας γνωσεως της εν αυτωι γενομενος.

3.23

 

III,23. THIS is common to all the worlds: that they are constituted of the four elements; but especially this - that each of them has a variation of quality.

3,23. Οι λογικοι οι υπο τον ουρανον κοινως μεν κεκτηνται τα τεσσαρα στοιχεια ιδιως δε την των ποιοτητων διαφοραν.

 

 

III,24. THE knowledge of the first nature is the spiritual contemplation which has served the Creator by making only the noes that are receptive of his nature.

3,24. [205] Η περι της πρωτης φυσεως των λογικων γνωσις θεωρια πνευματικη εστι ηι επεκτεινονται μετα την της αναστροφης αυτων τελειωσιν.

3.25

 

III,25. THE spiritual body and its opposite will not be (formed) of our members or our parts, but of a body. For the change is not a passage of members to members, but (the passage) of a an excellent or evil quality to an excellent or evil change. (1Cor 15:42)

3,25. Το πνευματικον σωμα ο ενδυσουσιν οι μεσοι λογικοι εν τηι εσχατηι ημεραι ουκ ουκ αλλο εστι παρα τουτο ο εκδουσιν αφθαρτον ορθιον και ευλογουν {cf. 1Sam 28·14}

3.26

 

III,26. THE knowledge that concerns the second nature is the spiritual contemplation which has served the Christ by creating the nature of bodies and the worlds from it.


On second natural contemplation and the  “manifold wisdom of Christ as the creative knowledge: KG 2.2. For first and second natural contemplation: Cf. KG 2.3; KG 2.13; KG 2.21; KG 3.61.  On second and third contemplations cf. KG 3,21.

3,26. Η περι της δευτερας φυσεως γνωσις θεωρια πνευματικη εστι η εχρησατο ο Χ. και εκτισεν τους κοσμους.

3.27

 

III,27. FIRST natural contemplation is naturally made for the separation of the nous, and so that it will not be separated. Indeed, that which is taught is separable, but that which is seen to be known in the nous is shown to be inseparable.


Cf. Prayer 58 & 57 for contemplations that separate the nous from God.As above on KG 3.19 for the imprinting effect of diverse contemplations and temptations:

3,27. [207] Η πρωτη της φυσεως θεωρια σκοπος εστι της τε του νοος κινησεως και του ακινητου αυτου.

3.28

 

III,28. THE soul is the nous which, through negligence, has fallen from the Unity; and through its carelessness, has descended to the rank of the praktike.

3,28. Ψυχη αμαρτωλος εστιν ͅ ο νους ο δια την αμελειαν αυτου της της αγιας μοναδος θεωριας εκπεσων τε και χρειαν εχων δια πολλου πονου αξιωθηναι της αγιας τριαδος εικονος αφ' ης επεσεν. {207}

 

 

III,29. THE sign of the human state is the human body, and the sign of each state is the greatness of their forms, the colors, the qualites, the natural forces, the weakness, the time, the relative place, the increases, the modes, the life, the death, and what attaches to these things.

3,29. Της ανθρωπινης καταστασεως σημειον εστι το των ανθρωπων σωμα σκοποι δε της ενος εκαστου των ανθρωπων καταστασεως εισιν οιδε μεγεθος και σχημα και χρωμα, δυναμεις φυσικαι και ασθενεια, και χρονος και τοπος, και πατερες και αυξησις, και ποροι και τεχναι, και ζωη και θανατος και ποσον εστι γιγνωσκειν εν τοις τοιουτοις.

 

 

III,30. NOUS is the [one] who sees the Blessed Trinity.

νοῦς ἐστιν ὁ τῆς ἁγίας τριάδος θεατής [FP 23.2]3,30.


[211] Ο νους ο πνευματκος εστιν εποπτης {ορατικος} της αγιας τριαδος.

 

 

III,31. IT is possible to speak of the unity of the nous; but its nature cannot be described: because there is no knowledge of the quality of [something] composed of neither form nor matter


[S1 It is possible to say what the movement of  the nous is, but  its nature is ineffable, because it has not been constituted of the four elements.]

Σ1 3,31. Τι εστιν η του νοος κινησις οιον τε λεγειν τι δε εστιν η φυσις αυτου ου λεκτεον εστι διοτι ουκ εν τοις τεσσαρσι στοιχειοις συνεστηκεν.

 

 

III,32. THE image of God is not that which is suceptible of His wisdom, for corporeal nature would thus be the image God. Rather that which has become susceptible of the Unity - this is the Image of God.

3,32. Του θεου εικων θεου ουκ εστιν εν ωι δυναται η σοφια αυτου εκτυπωθηναι οτι δυνατον και εν τοις εκ των τεσσαρων στοιχειων συννεστηκοσιν αλλα τουτο εστιν εικων του θεου ο εστι δεκτικον της της αγιας τριαδος γνωσεως.

 

 

III,33. THE name of “immortality” makes known the natural unity of the nous, and the fact that it is eternal makes known its ‘incorruptibility’. The first name - the knowledge of the Trinity accompanies it; and the second -the first contemplation of nature. (1Cor 15:53-54)


Cf Prak. 3 on knowledge of the Trinity and incorruptibility.

3,33. Σκοπος του ζωτικου του νοος αθανασια ονομαζεται σκοπος δε της προςκαρτερησεως αυτου οτι εις αιωνα διαμενει· απτεται δε του μεν πρωτου σκοπου η της αγιας τριαδος γνωσις, του δε δευτερου η πρωτη της φυσεως θεωρια.

3.34

 

III,34. DEMON is the reasoning nature which, because of an abundance of thumos, has fallen from the praktike.

[syr. adds: service of God].


Anger is the dominant characteristic of demons: Sch 60 on Prov. 5.9; Sch 25 On Ps 17,49; Sch. 9 On Ps 73.19(1); Prak. 73.

δαίμων ἐστὶ φύσις λογικὴ δι’ ἐπικρατείας θυμοῦ πρακτικῆς ἐκπεσοῦσα [FP 11.1.0]


3,34. [213] Ο δαιμον εστι φυσις λογικη δια περισσον θυμου αποστασα της του θεου θρησκειας.

3.35

 

III, 35. [SPIRITUAL*] knowledge heals the nous, love [heals] thumos, and chastity epithumia. And the cause of the first is the second, and that of the second the third. [*Syriac lacks spiritual]


Similar remedies for the three parts of the soul: Prak 15; 38; 89; Gnost 47.

 Νοῦν μὲν καθαίρει πνευματικὴ γνῶσις· θυμὸν δὲ θεραπεύει ἀγάπη· ἐπιθυμίαν δὲ ῥέουσαν ἵστησιν ἐγκράτεια. [Μuld. Α Τravers,p. 83,3]

Σ1 3,35. Τον νουν θεραπευει η γνωσις και τον θυμον η αγαπη και την επιθυμιαν η σωφροσυνη· αιτια δε του πρωτου το δευτερον και του δευτερου το τριτον.

3.36

 

III,36. AN age is a natural system [made up] of differing bodies, comprising different logikoi for the [sake of the] knowledge of God


On ages or worlds created to benefit the different ranks of logikoi: Sch 275 on Prov.24.22;  KG 1.11; cf Sch. 123 On Prov. 10.30. On praktike bodies and judgments: Sch 8 In Ps 1 . On the apokatastasis: KG 3.9 and on the vision of God as the end of all logikoi. Sch 136 On Prov 14.9.

[5.12(2) εἰς αἰῶνα ἀγαλλιάσονται, καὶ κατασκηνώσεις ἐν αὐτοῖς,] Αἰών ἐστι σύστημα φυσικὸν, ἐκ σωμάτων ποικίλων λογικὰς διαφορὰς περιέχον τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ γνώσεως·  [ = Sch 11 On Ps 5.12 [cf PG 12.1172 ]]


[S1] 215 Κοσμος εστι συστασις φυσεως η συνεστηκεν τε εκ σωματων κεχωρισμενων και περιεχει λογικους διαφορους αυξησεως της εν τηι του θεου γνωσει ενεκα.  

3.37

 

III,37.THE stars are superior to one another by their glory” (1Cor 15:41) and not by bodies; but their greatness, their shapes, their distance from one another, and their courses are varied. The fact that some of them are united to the interior of the shadow of the earth, others outside of it, and others to the separating limit, provides information concerning their orders and concerning the government which has been confided to them by God.


For variations in the luminosity of stars see also KG 4.31; for their role in enlightening the ignorant: KG 3.5KG 3.62 and 3.84; for their role in chastising the negligent KG 4.29 and KG 6.88.

3,37 Οι αστερες εν δοξηι διαφερουσιν αλληλων αλλ' ου και εν σωμασι διοτι ισα εστι.

3.38

 

III,38. THE judgment of God is the creation of the world, in which he provides a body, proportionately measured for each of the logikoi,


Text also found in Sch 275 on Prov.24.22.Judgment is the creation of an age  which distributes to each of the reasoning beings a body corresponding to its state.  Cf. KG 3.36, above.  On judgment as the creation of  praktike bodies”: Sch 8 On Ps 1.

κρίσις δέ ἐστιν γένεσις αἰῶνος κατ' ἀναλογίαν ἑκάστῳ τῶν λογικῶν σώματα διανέμοντος [Sch 275 on Prov.24.22]

3,38. Η του θεου κρισις εστι διακρισις δικαια η εν τοις των λογικων σωμασι θησει ανταποδομα η κατακριμα κατα τα εργα ενος εκαστου τουτεστιν η δοξαν η βασανισμον.

3.39

 

III,39. ONE part of fire is able to burn, while the other is incabable of burning: the part able to burn is that which burns sensible matter; incapable of burning is the part that consumes the trouble of the troubled. And the first does not burn all sensible matter, while the second is able to burn [up] the whole mass of trouble.

[S1=S2] 3,39. Του πυρος εστι το μεν καυστικον το δε ου καυστικον. καυστικον εστι το την αισθητην υλην κατακαιον ου καυστικον δε εστι το του των τεθορυβημενων θορυβου αναλωτικον. και το μεν πρωτον ͅ ου κατακαιει πασαν υλην αισθητην το δε δευτερον παντος του θορυβου πληθους καυστικον εστι.

3.40

 

III,40. THE ‘last trumpet’ (1Cor 15:52) is the commandment of the judge who has joined the logikoi to good or bad bodies, after which there will be no bad bodies.


On the apokatastasis: KG 3.9.  On ages or worlds created to benefit the different ranks of logikoi: Sch 275 on Prov.24.22;  KG 1.11; cf Sch. 123 On Prov. 10.30. On praktike bodies and judgments: Sch 8 In Ps 1 .  That the demons must ultimately succumb to wisdom: Sch 135 On Prov 14.7 On the vision of God as the end of all logikoi. Sch 136 On Prov 14.9.

3,40. [217] Η εσχατη σαλπιγξ εστι κελευσμα του δικαιου κριτου ος ενδυει τους λογικους τα σωματα αυτων κατα την των αναστροφων αυτων καταστασιν.

3.41

 

III,41. CONCERNING the contemplation of beings and the knowledge of Trinity, we - [that is] we and the demons - provoke a great battle, one against the other: the latter through wanting to prevent us from knowing, and we, by striving to learn.  Cf Prak 24.

3,41. Περι τε της των οντων θεωριας και περι της αγιας τριαδος γνωσεως ημεις και ο δαιμονες παντα τον πολεμον τον εν μεσωι εγειρομεν ουτοι μεν βουλομενοι κωλυσαι ημας του μη γιγνωσκειν ημεις δε σπουδαζοντες μανθανειν.

3.42

 

III,42. CONTEMPLATION is spiritual knowledge of the things which have been and will be: it is this that causes the nous to ascend to its first rank. Cf. KG 1.652.64, 3.46.

3,42. [219] Θεωρια εστι παντος ο εγενετο και γενησεται γνωσις πνευματικη ητις αυξανει τον νουν και τηι της εικονας αυτου καθως εκτισθη τελειοτητι εγγιζειν αυτον ποιει.

3.43

 

III,43. THOSE who now apply themselves to approaching near[er] to knowledge possess in common the ‘water’ and the ‘scented oil’ [i.e. chrism/muron] (Exod 29.7; 40.9,12); but human beings especially and abundantly possess ‘the oil’.


In Ex. 29.7 the (scented) anointing oil consecrates Aaron and his sons as priests.  It is used in Ex. 40.9 to consecrate the tabernacle; and in Ex.40.12 the priests are washed with water before putting on their sacred vestments.  “The Holy oil signifies knowledge of God; and even more it indicates essential knowledge” (Evag. Sch. 11 on Ps 88):  “The heavenly chrism (myron) is the knowledge of God:” (Sch. 4 on Psalm 132.2). Cf. KG 3.85

3,43. Οι σπουδαζοντες τελειωθηναι εν τηι της αληθειας επι γνωσει κοινως τοτε υδωρ και το ελαιον κεκτηνται· ιδιως δε οι ανθρωποι το ελαιον κεκτηνται.

3.44

 

III,44. Noetic SUN is the reasoning nature that bears [/carries about] within itself the first and blessed light.


On the sun interpreted as reasoning nature cf. Sch 1 On Ps 112.3; Sch.1 On Ps.114.2; Sch 3 On Ps 148.4. Of the three sources of the inner light of the nous descibed in KG 1.74 Evagrius here suggests that the nous retains its own inherent luminosity as part of its original first creation.  On the light of the nous and its possible origins: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15; Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 39, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.

ἥλιός ἐστι νοητός, φύσις λογικὴ τὸ πρῶτον καὶ μακάριον φῶς ἐν ἑαυτῇ περιφέρουσα [FP 13.1.0]


3,44. Ηλιος νοητος εστιν η λογικη φυσις ς το πρωτον της δοχης φως αναλαβειν επεκτεινομενη.

3.45

 

III,45. JUST as one cannot say that one nous is older than a[nother] nous, so also spiritual bodies are not older that praktike bodies if the change causing the two organa is one (“unique”).

3,45. Ωσπερ ου χωρει λεγειν οτι εστι νους πρεσβυτερος νοος ουτως ουκ εστι σωματα πνευματικα ατινα πρεσβυτερα παρα σωματα σαρκικα.

3.46

 

III,46. THE judgement of angels (1Cor 6.3) is that knowledge concerning the soul’s infirmities which effected the ascent to health of those who had been injured.


Evagrius interprets St. Paul's question Do you not know that we are to judge angels in an ascetical rather than an eschatological way.  Thus it refers not to judgment of celestial powers by humans, but rather to the ability of the gnostikos or teacher to discern and treat the spiritual maladies with which the human soul is afflicted. This spiritual health (apatheia) enables the soul to enjoy the company and encouragement of the angels: Prak 56 & 76; Sch 10 On Ps.37.17..

3,46. [221] Ο των αγγελων πονος εστι η των νοσουσων ψυχων επιμελεια του προσαγειν αυτας προς την της υγιειας τελειωσιν.

3.47

 

III,47. ONE [‘unique’] is the change that is made ‘in the twinkling of an eye’ (1Cor 15:52) which will affect each according to his degree as a result of judgement, and will establish the body of each according to the degree of his order. Indeed, should someone say that there is a change in the components apart from that which is common, that indicates that he is ignorant of the logoi of judgement.


Here, as in Sch 8 On Ps 1.5(1) Evagrius uses the term changeto describe what he also calls judgment or  “the logos of judgment: namely, the successive transformations that clothe the nous in a new body and world as part of its re-ascent to union with God.  Cf. Sch.5 On.Ps 118.7.  As above, notes on KG 3.38 and 3.40. On “change” and “transformation” (metathesis, metabasis): KG 2.4, 2.59, 2.69, 2.73, 2.77, 2.79, 2.87; 3.7, 3.9, 3.20, 3.25, 3.45, 3.48, 3.50, 3.51; 5.10; 6.58.

3,47. Μια εστιν ανακαινωσις εν ριπηι οφθαλμου εσομενη πασι τοις των λογικων σωμασιν η κελευσματι του δικαιου κριτου ενι εκεστωι αυτων το της ασκησεως αυτου ανταποδομα ορισει· το δε τολμαν τινα+ λεγειν οτι εστιν ανακαινωσις ετερα παραταυτην την κοινην απαντων σημειον εστι της αγνοιας του ουκ αισθομενου της δικαιας του θεου κρισεως συνεσεως.

3.48

 

III,48. THE change of the just is the passage from bodies that are praktike and seeing, into bodies which are seeing or very [clearly] seeing.


Sch 10 On Ps 1.5(1): judgment as the change (μετάθεσις) to contemplative (angelic) praktike bodies.  The opposite change: KG 3.50.  On different bodies serving different purposes cf. KG  3.36, 3.47, 3.48,

3,48. Η πνευματικη των δικαιων ανακαινωσις εστιν εξ αρετης εις αρετην τε και εκγνωσεως εις γνωσιν υπερβαλλουσαν αναγωγη {μετεωρισμος}.


[cf. Sch 8 in Ps 1:5: PG 12, 1097: Κρίσις ἐστὶ δικαίων μὲν ἡ ἀπὸ πρακτικοῦ σώματος ἐπὶ ἀγγελικὰ μετάβασις;

 

 

III,49. THE nous will not be crowned with the crown of essential knowledge, if it has not cast far from it ignorance of the two struggles.

3,49. [223] Ου στεφανωθησεται ο νους τωι της ουσιωδους γνωσεως στεφανωι εαν μη την των δυο αγωνων γνωσιν αποβαληι.

3.50

 

III,50. THE change of sinners is the passage from praktike or demonic bodies to [bodies] that are very heavy and darkened.


Sch 10 On Ps 1.5(1) on judgment as the change (μετάθεσις) from ascetical (praktike )bodies to gloomy, darkened (σκοτεινὰ καὶ ζοφερὰ) bodies. The opposite change: KG 3.48.  On different bodies serving different purposes cf. KG 3.36, 3.47, 3.48,

3,50. Η των αμαρτωλων μεταθεσις εστι τροπη εξ αμαρτιων εις αμαρτιας -- σκληροτερας και εξ αγνοιας εις αγνοιαν σκοτεινοτεραν.


Sch 8 in Ps 1:5:PG 12, 1097: Κρίσις ἐστὶ ... ἀσεβῶν δὲ ἀπὸ πρακτικοῦ σώματος ἐπὶ σκοτεινὰ καὶ ζοφερὰ μετάθεσις

3.51

 

III,51. ALL the changes which are produced before ‘the world to come’ have joined some with excellent bodies, and others with bad bodies. But those which will be produced after that which comes will join them all to gnostic organa.


As in KG 3.40, above. Sch 10 On Ps 1.5(1):: Judgment is for the just the passage from a body for asceticism to an angelic one.  [judgment] for the ungodly is the change from a body for asceticism to a darkened and gloomy one.” The result of the successive judgments is a greater capacity for knowledge: i.e. gnostic organa.

3,51. Εν πασηι των λογικων φυσει αναξεσι {εξανθησει} η γνωσις ημεραι της -- ανακαινωσεως· αλλα γαρ εσται τοις μεν εις ευφροσυνην τοις δε εις βασανισμον.


[cf. Sch 8 in Ps 1:5: PG 12, 1097: Κρίσις ἐστὶ δικαίων μὲν ἡ ἀπὸ πρακτικοῦ σώματος ἐπὶ ἀγγελικὰ μετάβασις;

3.52

 

III,52. Noetic MOON is the reasoning nature that is illuminated by ‘the sun of justice.’ (Mal 3:20)


Cf. Sch 3 On Ps 135.6; Sch 113 On Prov. 9.13.. Cf. Origen, Homily 1[5] on Genesis: Christ is the light within us that illuminates us just as the moon is illuminated.  On the light of the nous and its possible sources of illumination: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15;  Cf Sch 1 on Ps 18; Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 39, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.

σελήνη ἐστὶ νοητὴ φύσις λογικὴ πρὸς τοῦ ἡλίου τῆς δικαιοσύνης φωτιζομέέη [FP 33.1.0]


3,52. Σεληνη νοητη εστιν η λογικη φυσις η παρα του της δικαιοσυνης ηλιου φωτισθεισα.

53

 

III,53. WHOEVER has become receptive of the knowledge of God [but] who honors ignorance more than this knowledge - he is said to be evil. Now there is no corporeal nature receptive of knowledge. None of the bodies can therefore properly be said to be bad.


Cf. Letter 30.3. God has never created anything evil: KG 3.59.

3,53. Πας κτιισει της του θεου γνωσεως δεκτικος και παρα ταυτην την γνωσις την αγνοιαν προτιμων δικαιως κακος ονομαζεται· αλλ' ουκ εστιν η σωματικη φυσις δεκτικη ταυτης της γνωσεως ωστε ου δικαιως λεγουσιν οι λεγοντες οτι τουτο το σωμα κακον εστιν.

 

 

III,54.IN the wink of an eye’ (1Cor 15:52) Cherubs have been appointed Cherubs, Gabriel, Gabriel, and human beings, human beings.

3,54. Τωι του κυριου λογωι εν αρχηι τα οντα τα τε ενσωματα και τα -- σωματα συνεστηκε και ουκ εστιν αυτων πρεσβυτερον παρα το αλλο εν γε τηι του -- πιστου διανοιαι.

 

 

III,55. IN the beginning the nous had [the] incorruptible God as teacher of immaterial intellections; but now it has received corruptible sensation as the teacher of material intellections.

3,55. [227] Το πρωτον τωι λογικωι νοι η του πνευματος αποκαλυψις διδασκαλος ην μεταβληθεις δε μαθητης εγενετο των αισθητηριων και εν τηι δια του Χ. τελειωσει αυθις του πρωτου διδασκαλου αξιωθησεται.

3.56

 

III,56. SPIRITUAL knowledge is the ‘wings’ of the nous; the [one] who knows is the nous of the wings. And if this is so, then objects bear the sign of ‘trees’, on which the nous abides, [in